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F. Serquen and J. Staub

Sex expression (SE), stem length (SL), and number of laterals plant (NL) are important morphological traits of a cucumber plant ideotype adapted for machine harvesting. Two inbred lines, the determinate, gynoecious G-421, possessing high fruit quality, and the monoecious H-19, with multiple lateral branching and sequential fruiting habit, and their F1 and F3 (100) progenies were planted in Wisconsin and Georgia. Data on SE, SL, and NL were recorded on individual plant basis. Genetic parameters were estimated using all generations. Phenotypic correlations were calculated from the trait means, and genotypic correlations were estimated from the analysis of variance of F3 progeny. The additive genetic variance was the highest of the variance components for SL and NL. Dominance genetic variance was more important than the additive variance for the control of SE. Narrow-sense heritability were 0.41, 0.83, and 0.85 for SE, SL, and NL, respectively. The genotypic (g) and phenotypic (p) correlation coefficients (r) indicated negative association between SE and SL (r g = –0.57, r p = –0.45**) and between SE and NL (r g = –0.56, r p = –0.27**). The association between SL and NL was positive (r g = 0.63, r p = 0.35**). Results suggest that gain from selection can be made for this plant ideotype.

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Timothy M. Spann and Michelle D. Danyluk

The adoption of mechanical harvesting for processing oranges is a major objective of the Florida citrus industry. A number of issues have slowed the adoption of this new technology, including the observation that the amount of leaves, stems, and dead branches (collectively termed “debris”) is greater in mechanically harvested than in hand-harvested loads of fruit. This debris increases transportation and processing costs. The objective of this research was to determine the amount and types of debris in mechanically harvested loads of sweet oranges compared with hand-harvested controls. Mechanical harvesting was found to increase the amount of debris per load of fruit by as much as 250% compared with hand-harvested fruit. This translates into ≈108 kg of debris compared with 71 kg (fresh weight) per 27 t load for mechanically harvested and hand-harvested fruit, respectively. Across harvesting method, leaves were the largest component of debris, accounting for ≈60% of total debris, small stems (less than 5 mm diameter) accounted for ≈35%, and the remaining 5% was large stems (greater than 5 mm diameter). In addition, the amount of sand on the surface of mechanically harvested fruit that was picked up from the orchard floor was found to be up to 10 times greater compared with hand-harvested controls. Engineers developing debris elimination systems for mechanical harvesting systems can use the data from this study to determine the performance requirements of their systems. The data are also useful for economic analyses of the costs of mechanical harvesting.

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Arnon Dag, Smadar Boim, Yulya Sobotin, and Isaac Zipori

Most newly planted olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards are irrigated and harvested mechanically. We assessed the effects of olive storage temperature and duration on the resultant oil’s quality in three cultivars from modern orchards. Oil acidity increased with storage temperature and time, most markedly in ‘Barnea’ and least in ‘Koroneiki’. In ‘Koroneiki’, after 9 days in cool storage (4 and 10 °C), free fatty acid (FFA) level remained constant. Polyphenol (PP) content behaved differently among cultivars: in ‘Picual’, it was relatively invariable; in ‘Barnea’, it decreased moderately; and in ‘Koroneiki’, it decreased sharply to half of its initial value in 4 °C storage and one-sixth its initial value in room temperature storage after 23 days. Peroxide value (PV) did not increase during the storage period and did not appear to be affected by temperature. Thus, different cultivars show different responses to storage, and fruit originated from modern orchards are not necessarily more sensitive to storage than those from traditional orchards.

Open access

Tong Geon Lee, Reza Shekasteband, Naama Menda, Lukas A. Mueller, and Samuel F. Hutton

). Unlike processing tomatoes that have been successfully adapted for mechanized harvest, production of fresh-market tomatoes continues to rely on manual labor for harvesting and other common cultural practices (such as staking, tying, and pruning), which

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Ralph Scorza

The genetically available range in tree fruit architecture has not been fully utilized for tree fruit breeding or production. Higher planting densities, new training systems, high coats of pruning, the need to eliminate ladders in the orchard, and mechanized harvesting require a re-evaluation of tree architecture. Dwarf, semidwarf, columnar, and spur-type trees may be more efficient than standard tree forms, especially when combined with specific production systems. Studies of the growth of novel tree types and elucidation of the inheritance of growth habit components may allow breeders to combine canopy growth characteristics to produce trees tailored to evolving production systems.

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Charles Mainland

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

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Charles Mainland

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

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Stephen M. Southwick and Kitren G. Weis

Selection and propagation of rootstocks for apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varies worldwide in response to local climate, soils, and cultivars. In this paper we review published research focused on these local selective practices. Additionally, we review the current development of apricot rootstocks and suggest new research avenues to satisfy the needs of commercial apricot growers. Rootstocks are identified by their responses to biotic and environmental stresses, with specific adaptive characteristics that enable establishment and production under unique zonal ecologies. Desirable characteristics include scion compatibility, adaptation for heavy or wet soils, pest and disease resistance, ease of propagation, control of vegetative vigor, effects on dormant season physiology of the scion, precocity, fruit quality, and productivity. Interstocks that can overcome incompatible rootstock-scion combinations are covered. As worldwide consumer demand for apricots increases with improved apricot cultivars, rootstock selections and propagation must be developed for niche fruit with specific characteristics, intensive production systems, mechanized harvest, and marginal site selection.

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Antoni Almirall, Lluís Bosch, Roser Romero del Castillo, Ana Rivera, and Francesc Casañas

and suffers from lodging, thus making mechanized harvesting difficult when it is cultivated without support. ‘Tavella Brisa Croscat’ was developed through selection with the aim of preserving the sensory traits of the landrace (low seed