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Zongyu Li, R. Karina Gallardo, Wendy Hoashi-Erhardt, Vicki A. McCracken, Chengyan Yue, and Lisa Wasko DeVetter

is already in transition, but many of the cultivars currently used were not developed either for fresh-market strawberry production or for the growing conditions in PNW. To facilitate successful transition to the fresh market, research and extension

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E. Day and M.P. Garber

As the ornamental nursery industry moves from being production-oriented to being market-driven, growers must rethink the way they do business. No longer can producers target only purchasers of plant materials; now they must also direct marketing activities to those who influence the purchase of plants and choice of producers. Because landscape architects play an influential role in plant specification and selection of production nurseries, growers should consider ways in which effective marketing communications can be developed to influence these influencers. A marketing perspective on the decisionmaking process and the determination of the role of the individual in the decision process is used to develop recommendations on ways for growers to communicate with landscape architects. The implications of these findings for university extension programming also are discussed.

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M.P. Garber and K. Bondari

A survey of landscape architects in Georgia was conducted to identify opportunities for nurseries to meet the needs of landscape architects and to improve the quality of installed landscapes. The primary opportunities identified for improvement for growers are to provide regular, frequent plant availability (32% of respondents); develop new plant varieties for specific needs (21%); supply plants that meet specified sizes (20%); recommend plant varieties for specific conditions (12%); provide picture of plants (9%); and make presentations to landscape architects (5%). Additional insight into how growers can help landscape architects achieve a higher quality installed landscape was gained from the question, `What is the most common complaint you experience regarding plant material installed?” Landscape architects indicated that plants below specified size (44%) and plants below specified quality (24%) were the two most common complaints.

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Melvin Garber, Kane Bondari, and Gary Wade

A survey of landscape installers was conducted to help determine how university personnel and industry groups could better meet the needs of the landscape industry. The top four opportunities by which university personnel could assist landscape installers were to: 1) provide a hot-line for immediate professional advice (21%); 2) provide more in-house training (21%); 3) facilitate testing and introduction of new products (16%); and 4) provide lists of available publications and research findings (14%). Landscape installers also identified the most valuable information sources regarding types of plants available and plant installation. The implications of the survey results for developing education and marketing plans to serve the landscape installation industry are discussed.

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M.P. Garber

Marketing techniques were valuable in the development of an extension and research support program for the diverse Georgia nursery industry. The support program was developed in three stages: 1) needs assessment and development of industry alliances, 2) initiation of a research program based on priority needs, and 3) technology transfer. The needs assessment was facilitated by the development of a distribution channel map for the Georgia landscape/nursery industry. The industry alliances developed early in the project facilitated conduct of the research program and technology transfer. The research component was identified from an informal needs assessment and qualitative information on industry relations inferred from the distribution channel map. The research results support the contention that landscape architects have a significant influence on demand for nursery crops and that nursery operators should treat this group as important customers. The focus for technology transfer is improved marketing procedures and more efficient working relationships between nursery operators and landscape architects. This includes development of new alliances at the industry/association level, improved marketing practices for nursery operators, and positioning extension publications to benefit multiple industry segments.

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Robin G. Brumfield, Adesoji O. Adelaja, and Kimberly Lininger

Face-to-face interviews of produce customers at Kings Super Markets in New Jersey yielded data on consumers' tastes and preferences, quantities purchased, and prices paid for fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Purchase behavior indicated that during the local season, consumers preferred tomatoes grown in New Jersey to tomatoes from other origins. Data were fitted to demand equations to determine the factors affecting demand for fresh tomatoes. Tomato origin significantly influenced consumer purchases. Consumer perceptions of product characteristics such as color, freshness nutrition, and appearance do not appear to significantly influence tomato purchase patterns. However, prices of the) tomatoes or substitutes and income were important determinants of quantity purchased of both New Jersey grown and other tomatoes. New Jersey grown tomatoes were generally perceived to be of superior quality.

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Kathleen Kelley, Jeffrey Hyde, James Travis, and Robert Crassweller

market research to determine one or more consumer segments that might find the specific apples to be appealing. With “apple cultivar or type of apple” and “past purchasing of a particular apple” among the top three characteristics panelists selected as

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Amy Fulcher, Andrew K. Koeser, Robert Geneve, and Genhua Niu

Market researchers have found that nursery and greenhouse production practices that reduce plastic use can increase consumer interest. However, there are broader crop performance, production efficiency, and environmental factors that must be considered before adopting containers made with alternative materials. This review highlights current commercially available alternative containers and parent materials. In addition, findings from recent and ongoing nursery, greenhouse, and landscape trials are synthesized, identifying common themes, inconsistencies, research gaps, and future research needs.

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Gordon E. Hunt

Florida has been exporting grapefruit to Japan since that market opened up in the 1970's. Since that time, Japan has become the largest single export market in the world for Florida grapefruit. Taking primarily white grapefruit, Japan has been the savior of the white grapefruit industry in Florida. Florida's success in Japan is the result of a number of factors, including an aggressive generic marketing program, extensive market research, close cooperation with local importers, marked increases in product quality, Fruit Fly protocols with the Japanese government, development of cold-treatment shipping technologies, and strong US government financial and administrative support. The Florida success story is a case study of how a major market can be developed for the export of citrus products.

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D. J. Garrot Jr., M. W. Kilby, and R. D. Gibson

Arizona is currently experiencing an explosion in the commercial cultivation and production of table grapes. Decreasing water supplies, increasing water cost, and recent groundwater legislation are forcing Arizona growers to be more water efficient if they are to remain competitive with other markets. Research was conducted to determine the effect of water stress on vine growth and berry ripening. “Flame Seedless” table grapes (4th leaf) were subjected to increasing water stress levels based upon infrared canopy temperatures and the crop water stress index (CWSI). A lower water stress level (CWSI = 0.18 units at irrigation) promoted earlier berry sizing, increased berry weight, and increased cluster weight over drier treatments. Significantly higher growth (P= 0.01), based on pruning weights, also was attained at the lower water stress level. However, highest production (grade 1 and 2 packed boxes) was attained when irrigations were scheduled at 0.30 CWSI units. Total applied water to maintain the wet, medium, and dry treatments was 1136 mm (CWSI = 0.18), 775 mm (CWSI = 0.30), and 669 mm (CWSI = 0.33), respectively.