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Ariana P. Torres and Maria I. Marshall

( Torres et al., 2016 ). Or, it may be that certification cost was higher than the value they generated in the marketplace ( Dimitri and Oberholtzer, 2008 ). Farmers who switched to conventional agriculture may have faced the lack of market access or price

Open access

Ariana P. Torres, Susan S. Barton and Bridget K. Behe

As more individuals use the Internet for business and leisure, the opportunities for firms to promote products and services and to communicate with consumers online increases. The objective of this study was to investigate green industry managerial decisions to engage in online advertising and how much to invest while determining the main drivers contributing to these decisions. A double-hurdle model analyses of 1735 responses to the 2014 National Green Industry Survey, which gathered information on business practices, showed >40% of green industry business invested in online advertising. Typically, businesses investing in online advertising spent more than 43% of all advertising expenditures in online methods, including websites, social media, and newsletters. Furthermore, the decision to engage in online advertising was driven by the percentage of wholesale and contract sales, market access, firm size, product mix, and business owners’ perceptions. Results also showed that the amount of dollars invested in online advertising depended on firm size, tools used to find customers, location, and business owners’ perceptions. Our findings can help extension personnel and policymakers with the design and deliver social media training and educational events. Our findings can also help green industry businesses understand the two-step nature of the decision to invest in online advertising.

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Parama Sikdar, Mike Willett and Mark Mazzola

Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are fungal pathogens that cause postharvest speck rot and Sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Under quarantine regulations established by the Chinese government, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned between 2012 and 2014 because of detection of these pathogens in apple shipments. Previous studies established that pycnidia of P. washingtonensis and S. pyriputrescens survive in twig cankers on manchurian crabapple which serves as a dominant pollinizer in the Washington State apple industry. These pycnidia serve as a primary source of inoculum for infection of apple fruit in the orchard. The objective of this research was to conduct a study at multiple locations in Washington State to determine the efficacy of implementing manchurian crabapple pruning as a method to control speck rot and Sphaeropsis rot in storage. Four commercial orchards at geographically distant locations in Washington State were selected in 2014 and three in 2015. In 2014, two treatments included preharvest pruning of manchurian crabapple and postharvest application of pyrimethanil and untreated control. In 2015, preharvest pruning alone (PO) of manchurian crabapple was included in addition to the two treatments examined in 2014. Pruning conducted in concert with postharvest fungicide treatment significantly reduced the incidence of speck rot and Sphaeropsis rot in storage during the initial experimental field season. During year 2, both the PO and pruning with postharvest fungicide application controlled fruit rot with no significant difference between the two treatments. Findings from this study will be instrumental for the control of these postharvest diseases and maintenance of international market access for fruit from the Pacific Northwest.

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Bradley J. Rickard, David R. Rudell and Christopher B. Watkins

Partnership (TTIP). The agreement aims to promote trade between the two regions through three mechanisms: 1) increasing market access, 2) enhancing regulatory coherence and cooperation, and 3) developing and updating trade rules. Many expect that the TTIP

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Mojdeh Bahar and Robert J. Griesbach

, livelihoods and landscapes (IHC2014): International symposia on innovative plant protection in horticulture, biosecurity, quarantine pests, and market access. Acta Horticulturea Proceeding 1105 International Association for Plant Taxonomists 2012 International

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey and Jason Johnston

nectar to encourage parasitic wasps and predators of these pests. In addition, the combined use of pheromone monitoring traps and rigorous organic spray programs has been enacted to increase market access. Beginning in 2000, New Zealand growers also

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Hye-Ji Kim

Improving market access for smallholders: Challenges and opportunities. Paper presented to the 50th Annual Conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, 8–10 Feb. 2006, Sydney, Australia Sauer, P. Sullivan, P. 2000 Alternative

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Sarah R. Schweig and Rebecca N. Brown

customers who do not regularly buy ethnic produce. In addition to niche market access, diversified production is important to mitigating risk for many small farmers ( Sassenrath et al., 2010 ). Amaranth has been reported to be resistant to many biotic and

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Qasim Ahmed, Yonglin Ren, Robert Emery, James Newman and Manjree Agarwal

). However, this growing market has been threatened by a natural infestation of purple scum springtails, which significantly affected market access as purple scum springtails are considered a quarantine pest in many Middle East countries. Australian

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J. Alberto García-Salazar, Rhonda K. Skaggs and Terry L. Crawford

.S. cantaloupe imports; however, Mexico's share dropped sharply between 1999 and 2000 in the face of growing competition from Central American exporters benefiting from market access provisions of the U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) ( Fig. 1 ). Mexico