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Touria E. Eaton, Douglas A. Cox, and Allen V. Barker

evaluate liquid fish, oilseed extract, and alfalfa pellets, used either alone or in combination, for plant growth and N leaching from two commonly grown floricultural crops, marigold ( Tagetes erecta L. ‘First Lady’) and calibrachoa ( Calibrachoa

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Stephanie E. Burnett, Marc W. van Iersel, and Paul A. Thomas

French marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Boy Orange') was grown in a peat-based growing medium containing different rates (0, 15, 20, 30, 42, or 50 g·L–1) of polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG-8000) to determine if PEG-8000 would reduce seedling height. Only 28% to 55% of seedlings treated with 62, 72, or 83 g·L–1 of PEG-8000 survived, and these treatments would be commercially unacceptable. Marigolds treated with the remaining concentrations of PEG-8000 had shorter hypocotyls, and were up to 38% shorter than nontreated controls at harvest. Marigold cotyledon water (ψw), osmotic (ψs), and turgor (ψp) potentials were significantly reduced by PEG-8000, and ψp was close to zero for all PEG-treated seedlings 18 days after seeding. Whole-plant net photosynthesis, whole-plant dark respiration, and net photosynthesis/leaf area ratios were reduced by PEG-8000, while specific respiration of seedlings treated with PEG-8000 increased. Marigolds treated with concentrations greater than 30 g·L–1 of PEG-8000 had net photosynthesis rates that were close to zero. Fourteen days after transplanting, PEG-treated marigolds were still shorter than nontreated seedlings and they flowered up to 5 days later. Concentrations of PEG from 15 to 30 g·L–1 reduced elongation of marigold seedlings without negatively affecting germination, survival, or plant quality. It appears that marigold seedlings were shorter because of reduced leaf ψp and reductions in net photosynthesis.

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Theodore W. Tibbitts and Uzoamaka B. Mokwunye

The cotyledons of marigold, Tagetes erecta L., developed epinasty when reflective surfaces were maintained under the seedlings. Plain aluminum foil or white-painted foil induced up to 360° curvature as the cotyledons extended, whereas no epinasty occurred over the exposed surface of potting mix or black-painted foil. A gray-painted foil induced intermediate epinasty. Dry-weight accumulation of the seedlings was not significantly affected by the epinasty.

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, and James Altland

alternative waters. Marigold, native to North and South America, is a genus of annual or perennial plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Many marigold species have become naturalized around the world and are considered one of the most popular ornamental

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Lee Ann Moccaldi and Erik S. Runkle

are deemed ready for transplant. The finish stage begins on the date of transplant into larger containers and continues until plants are marketed. We performed experiments with two annual crops, marigold and salvia, to quantify how temperature and DLI

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Sabrina J. Ruis, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and Russ Zeeck

composted stover as alternatives to peat. Therefore, our objectives were to determine how PCS affects the growth and quality of tomatoes and marigolds and to compare the hydraulic and chemical properties of PCS with those of peat. Materials and Methods

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, James Poss, and Donald A. Layfield

+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl − , and SO 4 2− , together with alkalinity, resulting from HCO 3 − and CO 3 2− , have direct toxic effects on plant physiology and/or affect plant growth through osmotic effects and loss of nutrient availability. Marigold, one of

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Kevin M. Heinz, Polly A. Harding, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos, Heather Hernandez, Peter C. Krauter, and Gregory A. Sword

of Agriculture, 2016 ). Annual bedding plants contribute the greatest proportion (30.4%) of the total wholesale value ( United States Department of Agriculture, 2016 ). Among bedding plants, marigolds ( Tagetes erecta L.) and zinnia ( Zinnia elegans

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Rita L. Hummel, Craig Cogger, Andy Bary, and Robert Riley

chemical properties and plant growth response at two nitrogen rates under greenhouse conditions. Materials and methods Seeds of ‘Little Hero Flame’ marigold and ‘Golden California Wonder’ pepper were sown in plug trays (96 cell size, 32-mL volume) in peat

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Guihong Bi, Williams B. Evans, and Glenn B. Fain

and nursery substrates differ significantly from field soils, and plants may respond differently to ash applications. Using marigold as a test plant, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using pulp mill boiler ash as an