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Ed Stover, William Castle, and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

The world market for citrus (Citrus spp.) products has undergone dramatic shifts over the last decade. These shifts are influencing development and planting of new citrus cultivars. Seedlessness and very easy peeling have become paramount in mandarin types (C. reticulata and hybrids), and new cultivars are being developed through plant breeding and selection of new sports. In both sweet orange (C. sinensis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi), essentially all important cultivars are derived from a single original hybrid of each fruit type, and plant improvement has focused on selection of sports with redder color and extended maturity. The existence of many active citrus breeding programs makes it likely that we will continue to see evolution of new citrus cultivars over the foreseeable future.

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Gaetano Distefano, Giuseppina Las Casas, Stefano La Malfa, Alessandra Gentile, Eugenio Tribulato, and Maria Herrero

). Seedlessness is a very important feature in the evaluation of commercial mandarins for fresh consumption because seeded fruit depreciate the value of the crop ( Pons et al., 1995a ; Vardi et al., 2008 ). However, in all citrus-producing countries, in the last

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Amalie B. Kurzer, Rose Bechtel, and Jean-Xavier Guinard

]. Oranges were most of the fresh market citrus produced in California, followed in descending order by the categories of lemons ( Citrus limon ), tangerines ( Citrus reticulata ) and mandarins, and finally grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ). Although lower than

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Li Yingzhi, Cheng Yunjiang, Tao Nengguo, and Deng Xiuxin

how mandarins ( C. reticulata ) are treated; 36 mandarin species are recognized by Tanaka (1969 , 1977 ) whereas only three mandarin species are noted by Swingle's system ( Swingle and Reece, 1967 ), including C. tachibana (Makino) Tanaka and C

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Yuan Yu, Chunxian Chen, Ming Huang, Qibin Yu, Dongliang Du, Matthew R. Mattia, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr.

classification: 16 species were included in the Citrus genus in the classification of Swingle, whereas Tanaka described 162 species. The subsequent phylogenetic studies suggested that there were three true cultivated Citrus species, mandarin, citron, and

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Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers, and Ed Stover

For orange juice (OJ) use, although sugars and acids are essential for good taste, it is the volatiles that in fact determine the unique flavor of a cultivar ( Shaw, 1991 ). The hybrids between mandarin and sweet orange and their descendants

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Monte L. Nesbitt, Robert C. Ebel, and William A. Dozier Jr

Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) has been grown in southern Alabama, southern Mississippi, and northwestern Florida with intermittent commercial success since its introduction from Japan in the late 1800s. Occasional winter freezes and the

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Rosana Moreno, Diego S. Intrigliolo, Carlos Ballester, Cruz Garcerá, Enrique Moltó, and Patricia Chueca

efficiency of trunk shakers in orange ( C. sinensis ) and mandarins ( Citrus reticulata L.) trees have reported fruit detachment percentages ranging between 52% and 85% ( Moreno et al., 2015 ; Torregrosa et al., 2009 ), with a percentage of fruit without

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Graham H. Barry, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

, there are no definitive leaf mineral nutrient norms for mandarin ( C. reticulata ) to guide production of cultivars such as ‘Nadorcott’ in South Africa. As part of a wider study on alternate bearing in ‘Nadorcott’ mandarin, it was shown that fruit load

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Tyler J. Simons, Christopher J. McNeil, Aubrey D. Pham, Carolyn M. Slupsky, Mikeal L. Roose, and Jean-Xavier Guinard

in regard to fruit quality ( Roose, 2014 ), and the choice of rootstock involves chemical, flavor, and liking effects ( Benjamin et al., 2013 ). The ‘DaisySL’ mandarin is known for its low seed count, mid-to-late season ripening, medium-to-large fruit