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Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, and Nehemia Aharoni

Abbreviations: BHT, butylated hydroxy toluene; FCs, fluorescent compounds; MDA, malondialdehyde; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; TBA, thiobarbituric acid. Contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan

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Ching-Hsueh Wang, Der-Ming Yeh, and Chian-Shinn Sheu

flowering-heat-delay sensitivity. Heat acclimation is required for detecting differences in heat tolerance among the lines or cultivars ( Senthil-Kumar et al., 2003 , 2007 ). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a product of peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in

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Huifei Shen, Bing Zhao, Jingjing Xu, Xizi Zheng, and Wenmei Huang

significance of difference was poor ( P ≤ 0.05). Table 4. Effects of heat stress, salicylic acid (SA) and/or CaCl 2 application on malondialdehyde (MDA) content of Rhododendron ‘Fen Zhen Zhu’ after 0 and 6 d of high temperature [38 °C (0 d and 6 d)] and 20

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Lijian Liang, Yanming Deng, Xiaobo Sun, Xinping Jia, and Jiale Su

(NO) pretreatment on ( A ) malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ( B ) electrolyte leakage in anthurium under chilling stress. Anthurium plants used in this study were grown in a growth chamber for 20 d and then pots with established plants were sprayed

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Cheng-lie Zhang, Paul H. Li, and Charles C. Shin

Twenty-day-old `Bush Blue Lake 47' common bean plants grown in a growth chamber at 25 days/22C night and a 12-hour photoperiod regime were foliar sprayed with 0.5% GLK-8903 including 0.05% Tween-20. After 24 hours of treatment, plants were chilled in a cold room (4C day/night, 12 hours of light). After 3 days of chilling, leaves of untreated controls were injured, as visually characterized by leaf wilting, whereas leaves of the GLK-8903-treated plants still retained turgor. During chilling, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) decreased. GLK-8903 treatment had no effect on SOD and POD activities; however, the CAT activity was reduced significantly after GLK-8903 treatment either at 25 or at 4C. During chilling, the content of malondialdehyde, a decomposition product of phospholipid peroxidation, increased in treated plants and untreated controls, with increased content significantly lower in the former compared with the latter. The GLK-8903 per se and total lipid extracted from GLK-8903-treated plants were able to reduce the linoleic acid oxidation in vitro. The mechanism by which GLK-8903 alleviates chilling injury in bean plants is discussed.

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Agnes A. Flores-Nimedez, Paul H. Li, and Charles C. Shin

GLK-8903, an experimental product whose main ingredient is produced by hydrogenation of a primary alcohol extracted from plants, showed significant potential in protecting bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants from chilling injury. The GLK-8903 protection mechanism was assessed by examining several physiological and biochemical responses. The decline in leaf water potential and the increase in osmotic potential caused by chilling exposure to 4C (day/night) were minimized by the application of GLK-8903. Chilling causes an increase in electrolyte leakage, an indication of chilling injury of the plasma membrane. Increased electrolyte leakage was reduced significantly in the GLK-8903-treated plants during chilling. This minimized leakage may be due to less damage of the plasma membrane. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis studies of the epidermal cells suggest that GLK-8903 is able to reduce the plasma membrane perturbation in the chilling environment, as evident by: 1) the lower permeability coefficient to urea at 4C, and 2) the swelling of protoplasts in the cells of untreated tissues after chilling exposure with no swelling of the protoplast being observed in the GLK-8903-treated cells. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, increased more in untreated controls than in treated plants exposed to 4C. Plasma membrane ATPase activity decreased less in GLK-8903-treated plants than in untreated controls after 3 days at 4C. The mechanism of GLK-8903-alleviated chilling injury is discussed.

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Zhaolong Wang, John Pote, and Bingru Huang

This study was designed to examine whether shoot injury induced by high root-zone temperature is associated with changes in shoot detoxifying metabolism and to determine the level and duration of high root-zone temperatures that would induce physiological changes in two cultivars of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds) differing in heat tolerance. Plants of `Penn A-4' (heat tolerant) and `Putter' (heat susceptible) were grown in sand and exposed to root-zone temperatures of 20 (control), 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 31, and 35 °C in water baths while air temperature was maintained at 20 °C in a growth chamber. Turf quality, leaf cytokinin content, and antioxidant enzyme activities declined at increased soil temperatures and the duration of treatment for both cultivars. A decline in turf quality occurred following 40 days of exposure to 35 °C for `Penn A-4' and 26 days of exposure to 31 °C for `Putter'. The root-zone temperature causing the decline of isopentenyl adenosine and zeatin cytokinins was 25 °C at 37 d for `Putter' and 27 °C at 47 days for `Penn A-4'. The temperature causing the decline of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities was 25 °C and 27 °C at 33 days for `Putter' and 27 °C and 31 °C at 43 days for Penn A-4, respectively. Malondialdehyde content increased at 27 °C for `Putter' and 31 °C for `Penn A-4' at 43 days of treatment. The decline in cytokinin content and antioxidant enzyme activity occurred at a lower soil temperature and earlier during the treatment than the decline in turf quality, possibly contributing to turf quality decline. The root-zone temperatures causing the decline in turf quality, cytokinin content, and oxidative damage were higher in the heat-tolerant cultivar than heat-susceptible cultivar.

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Jing Mao, Hongliang Xu, Caixia Guo, Jun Tong, Yanfang Dong, Dongyun Xu, Fazhi Chen, and Yuan Zhou

examine specifically whether the calcium ion is involved in coordination with physiological indices including antioxidant contents, chlorophyll, protein content, free proline and malondialdehyde (MDA), and/or the HSF transcriptional expression during high

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Ming Ding, Beibei Bie, Wu Jiang, Qingqing Duan, Hongmei Du, and Danfeng Huang

was defined per gram of fresh leaves that caused a change of 0.01 in absorbance in 1 min (unit/g FW/min). Determination of lipid peroxidation. The level of lipid peroxidation in the leaves was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which

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Zhengke Zhang, Yu Zhang, Donald J. Huber, Jingping Rao, Yunjing Sun, and Shanshan Li

measurement interval. Malondialdehyde determination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was determined by the method of Hodges et al. (1999) with some modifications. One gram of fruit flesh without skin was homogenized in 5 mL of 5% (w/v) 2-thiobarbituric acid