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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Jules Janick and Jorge F.S. Ferreira

-resistant Plasmodium falciparum , responsible for the often-fatal cerebral malaria. Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are presently the first-line treatment for malaria in the tropics. Yields of artemisinin from seed-grown plants average 0.7% in Africa and Asia

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William Reichert, H. Chung Park, H. Rodolfo Juliani and James E. Simon

malaria and those that transmit yellow fever, filariasis, the West Nile virus and encephalitis for a total of six different mosquito species repelled ( Abdelkrim and Mehlhorn, 2006 ; Bernier et al., 2005 ; Birkett et al., 2011 ; Chauhan et al., 2012

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Ernst Cebert, Denys J. Charles and James E. Simon

Artemisia annua L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant of importance for its volatile essential oils, and the non-volatile artemisinin used in the treatment of malaria. To determine the optimum time of planting for growth and the accumulation of essential oils, seedlings of A. annua (Purdue accession 012) were transplanted into the field in Central Indiana in a RBD with 3 replications on April 25, May 24, June 24, and July 25, 1988. Plant samples were harvested every 2 weeks until first frost.

The April and May transplanting dates produced the tallest plants (>180 cm) while the May transplants accumulated the greatest fresh and dry weights. The average increase in plant height was greatest for the June 24 planting date at 9.8 cm per week. Regardless of planting date, all plants began to flower by early August and growth rate began to decrease by late August. Accumulation of essential oil (as rel. % dry wt.) was similar for all planting dates. Essential oil increased until floral initiation, then decreased for 2 weeks after which there was a rapid increase in oil accumulation. Maximum oil accumulation from all planting dates was reached on Sept. 28 after which growth continued to increase.

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Jorge Ferreira, Denys Charles, James Simon and Jules Janick

Postharvest methods of handling Artemisia annua L. were evaluated to determine the recovery of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene used in the treatment of malaria, because low yields have been a limitation to commercialization. Immediately following field harvest in October, plants were subjected to: freeze drying, oven drying (40C), and open air drying. Leaf samples (50 gfw) were dried for 7 days in each treatment, and stable weights were achieved after day 2 for oven or open air drying and day 1 for freeze drying. One gram of dry weight was sampled from each treatment for artemisinin analysis using reverse phase chromatography by HPLC with EC detection. Open air drying of samples gave significantly higher artemisinin yield (0.13g/100g) than oven drying (0.10g/100g) and freeze drying (0.02g/100g). In a second experiment, open air drying for 2,4,6, and 8 days was compared to microwave drying for 2 minutes, of foliage samples with 10 gfw, of a plant low in artemisinin. Time of drying did not affect artemisinin content but microwave drying greatly reduced artemisinin (0.02g/100g air drying vs 0.002g/100g microwave drying). In our protocol artemisinin was detected in a greenhouse plant (0.3g/100g artemisinin) in samples as low as 50 mgdw.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell, Mateus Augusto Donega, Tess Astatkie and Bonnie Heidel

; Koulman et al., 2004 ; Stahelin and Wartburg, 1991 ). In addition, some other derivatives of podophyllotoxin were found to be promising in the treatment of psoriasis, malaria ( Leander and Rosen, 1988 ; Lerndal and Svensson, 2000 ), and also as antiviral

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Margaret W. Kirika, Jane W. Kahia, Lucien N. Diby, Eliud M. Njagi, Colombe Dadjo and Christophe Kouame

Erythrina species are used indigenously as traditional medicines to treat various diseases, such as infections, cough, malaria, inflammation, bronchitis, asthma, and insomnia ( Cui et al., 2008 ). The bark is commonly used in traditional medicine, to treat

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, Vicki Schlegel and Xavier Simonnet

as the raw material for production of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) such as the first line of defense against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria ( Ferreira et al., 2010 ). For essential oil production, A. annua is

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Andrew M. Jones, Bharathi Avula, Victor Maddox and Dennis E. Rowe

-cell lung cancer, lymphoblastic leukemia, testicular cancer, and brain tumors ( Farkya et al., 2004 ; Holthuis, 1988 ; Stahelin and von Wartburg, 1991 ). In addition, podophyllotixin derivatives are being used for the treatment of psoriasis and malaria

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Jules Janick

because it directly destroyed the protozoan associated with malaria; it is now superseded by other drugs. It is still consumed as the bitter ingredient of certain soft drinks known as quinine or tonic water and is the basis for the popular cocktail gin and

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Neil O. Anderson, Adnan Younis and Ye Sun

microsatellite DNA markers for soybean genotype identification Theor. Appl. Genet. 90 43 48 Russell, F.S. Rao, T.R. 1940 On habitat and association of species of anopheline larvae in south-eastern Madras J. Malaria Inst