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Fumiomi Takeda, Gerard Krewer, Changying Li, Daniel MacLean and James W. Olmstead

in Michigan, most fruit going to the fresh market had to be hand harvested or had to be consumed within a few days of machine harvest. Blueberry production remains profitable, but the price has declined, particularly in the traditional high

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M. Joseph Stephens, Peter A. Alspach, Ron A. Beatson, Chris Winefield and Emily J. Buck

Commercial red raspberry cultivars suited to machine-harvest and process markets need to have a high yield of good-quality fruit that is easily removed during the harvest operations. In the PNW, this has been achieved using the cultivar Meeker

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James W. Olmstead and Chad E. Finn

recently, machine-harvested fruit were predominantly destined for processed blueberry products due to the potential for fruit damage leading to reduced marketability and postharvest life. Strik and Yarborough (2005) reported that the percentage of machine-harvested

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James W. Olmstead, Hilda Patricia Rodríguez Armenta and Paul M. Lyrene

years, but the utilization of the harvested product has remained constant: machine-harvested fruit are predominantly destined for processed blueberry ( Vaccinium species and hybrids) products because of the potential for fruit damage leading to reduced

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Blair Buckley III and Katharine C. Pee

An investigation was conducted in 1993 and 1994 to examine the effect of row spacing on yield and pod maturity distribution of machine-harvested, green-mature southernpeas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull' was planted at row spacings of 53, 89, and 107 cm single drilled and 107 cm double drilled. Marketable yield increased linearly as row spacing decreased. A double drill on a standard 107-cm row spacing did not result in higher yield than a single drill. Marketable yield from the double-drilled, 107-cm row spacing was less than yield from the 53-cm spacing. The seeding rate per hectare for the two treatments was the same. In 1993, the mature pod percentage at harvest increased linearly as row spacing decreased. Row spacings as narrow as 53 cm can be used to increase yield of machine-harvested, green-mature southernpeas.

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Blair Buckley and Katharine Pee

Yield of southernpeas machine-harvested at the green-mature stage generally have not been sufficient for machine-harvest to be profitable. Using narrow row spacings has been proposed to increase yield per hectare. A study was conducted in 1993 and 1994 to examine the effect of row spacing on yield of machine harvested green-mature southernpeas. `Texas Pinkeye' was planted at row spacings of 53, 89, and 107 cm single drilled (SD), and 107 cm double drilled (DD). Marketable yield from the 53-cm row spacing was greater than from the wider row spacings. The yield response was primarily linear. Marketable yield from the DD 107-cm row spacing did not differ significantly from that of the SD 107-cm row spacing. Marketable yield from the DD 107-cm row spacing was less than that from the 53-cm spacing. The plant population per hectare for the two treatments was the same. In 1993, there was a linear response for percentage of pods mature at harvest. The percentage of mature pods was greatest for the 53-cm row spacing.

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Carl E. Motsenbocker, Blair Buckley, William A. Mulkey and James E. Boudreaux

Field studies were conducted in 1991 and 1992 to evaluate the effect of in-row spacing on machine-harvested jalapeno pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield and plant characteristics. In 1991, `TAM Mild Jalapeno-1' (TAMJ1) and `Jalapeno-M' (JM) were planted at 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-inch (10-, 20-, 30-, 40-cm) in-row spacings and, in 1992, TAMJ1 was planted at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-inch (7.5-, 15-, 22.5-, 30-cm) spacings. Total marketable yield increased linearly for JM (in 1991), while the yield response was quadratic for TAMJ1 in 1992 with narrower in-row spacing. Total marketable yield for JM (1991) and TAMJ1 (1992) was highest for the narrowest spacing, 4 and 3 inches, respectively. Red fruit yield of both cultivars in 1991 increased linearly with narrower spacing. In 1992 there were no differences in red fruit yield among in-row spacings. Plants lodged more at wider spacings. In-row spacings as narrow as 4 inches may increase marketable yield of machine-harvested jalapeno pepper.

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Marisa M. Wall, Stephanie Walker, Arthur D. Wall, Ed Hughs and Richard Phillips

In the southwestern U.S. growing region, which includes southern New Mexico, west Texas, and southeastern Arizona, mechanical harvest of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum) is increasing because of the high cost of hand labor. Mechanical harvesters have been developed, but there is limited information on the performance of chile cultivars when machine harvested. Four red chile pepper cultivars (New Mexico 6-4, Sonora, B-18, and B-58) were grown in a farmer's field near Las Cruces, N.M., and harvested in October 2000 using a double-helix-type harvester. Ethephon was applied 3 weeks before harvest at 1.5 pt/acre (1.75 L·ha-1) to promote uniform ripening. Ethephon caused fruit of `B-18' and `B-58' to drop before harvest, thereby affecting yield results. Treatment with ethylene-releasing compounds is not recommended for these cultivars. `Sonora' and `New Mexico 6-4'dropped much less fruit than `B-18' and `B-58' after the ethephon treatment. Dry weight marketable yield ranged from 1419 to 2589 lb/acre (1590.5 to 2901.8 kg·ha-1), and total yield potential (discounting dropped fruit) ranged from about 2500 to 3100 lb/acre (2802.1 to 3474.6 kg·ha-1), depending on cultivar. Harvest efficiencies of 73% to 83% were observed among the cultivars. Trash content of the harvested chile varied from 25% to 42% of dry weight. Trash was predominantly diseased and off-color fruit, leaves, and small stems. Trash content was highest for `Sonora'. `New Mexico 6-4' had the greatest marketable yield and harvest efficiency among the cultivars evaluated in this study.

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Bernadine C. Strik and Helen K. Cahn

`Meeker' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cane densities of 5, 10, or 15 canes/hill in a hill system, with canes topped at 2 m or the entire cane length retained and looped, were compared with a 15- or 30-cm-wide hedgerow with canes topped at 2 m from 1995 to 1997. Cane density among all treatments ranged from 2.2 to 9.9 canes/m2 during the study. Plots were harvested by machine every 2 days. Within the hill system, total yield increased with cane density in all years. Looped treatments produced a higher yield/plot than did topped ones in all years except 1996, when the yield difference was insignificant because looped canes had greater winter injury. Weight per fruit ranged from 5.4% to 9.7% less on looped than on topped canes. Hedgerow systems had a lower yield than hill systems in 1996, but a higher yield in 1997. Losses due to machine harvest were not affected by pruning (cane density or topping) or production system (hill system or hedgerow) and averaged 16.2% of total yield in 1997. Thirty-five percent of the loss due to machine harvest occurred between harvests.

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Blair Buckley

The Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has released a new pinkeye purple hull-type southernpea cultivar for the fresh market. The new cultivar, Quickpick, originated from a cross between breeding lines LA 88-74 and LA 88-9. `Quickpick' has a bush-type plant habit with synchronous pod set and is suitable for either machine- or hand-harvest. Pods of `Quickpick' are straight, ≈20 cm long, and about 8 mm in diameter. Fresh peas are green with a light-pink eye. Yield of `Quickpick' equaled or surpassed yield of `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull' in machine-harvested replicated tests. In hand-harvested replicated tests, yield of `Quickpick' was comparable to `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull', `Coronet', `Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR', `Mississippi Pinkeye', and `Santee Early Pinkeye'. `Quickpick' is immune to a Georgia isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, a major virus of southernpea in the United States.