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Henry Taber, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Shanshan Li, Wendy White, Steven Rodermel, and Yang Xu

Functional foods contain bioactive ingredients known as phytochemicals or nutraceuticals that may increase health and fitness. Such a phytochemical is the carotenoid lycopene found in tomato fruit, and it is associated with the inhibition of heart

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Todd C. Wehner, Rachel P. Naegele, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

metric tons ( FAO, 2012 ; NASS, 2014 ). Watermelons are grown throughout the United States, with production mainly in the southern states ( Wehner, 2008 ). Recently, watermelon has gained national attention as a good source of antioxidants (lycopene

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Nan Wang, Shi Liu, Peng Gao, Feishi Luan, and Angela R. Davis

red, and green ( Zhao et al., 2013 ). This wide range of color distribution reflects the carotenoid composition and content of the fruit ( Tadmor et al., 2005 ). Red-fleshed watermelon contains the highest carotenoid levels, with lycopene as the most

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J.K. Collins, P. Perkins-Veazie, and W. Roberts

Lycopene is a pigment that imparts a red or red–orange color to some fruits and vegetables. This carotenoid has been extensively studied over the last 10 years because of its potent antioxidant activity and medical evidence that dietary intake can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers in the areas of horticulture and food science a current summary of available information on lycopene in plants, stabilization and extraction, and potential health benefits as delineated in current medical studies.

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Paemika Promkaew, Varit Srilaong, Chalermchai Wongs-Aree, Nutthachai Pongprasert, Samak Kaewsuksaeng, and Satoru Kondo

-derived pigments, accumulate in the peel and pulp of citrus fruit [ Citrus sp. ( Kato et al., 2004 )]. Lycopene exhibits the highest physical quenching rate among carotenoids ( Lindshield et al., 2007 ; Roldan-Gutierrez and de Castro, 2007 ). The higher

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Chieri Kubota, Mark Kroggel, Mohammad Torabi, Katherine A. Dietrich, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jorge Fonseca, and Cynthia A. Thomson

potential in the root zone. Based on this understanding, growing tomato plants hydroponically using nutrient solution with high EC has been commercially practiced worldwide, yet to a limited extent in North America ( Buck et al., 2008 ). Lycopene is an

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Jordan L. Hartman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Todd C. Wehner

The American Heart Association endorses watermelon as a heart-healthy food due to its low sodium and fat content (American Heart Association, 2018). Watermelon contains both lycopene and citrulline, bioactive compounds with implications in both

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Dilip R. Panthee, Chunxue Cao, Spencer J. Debenport, Gustavo R. Rodríguez, Joanne A. Labate, Larry D. Robertson, Andrew P. Breksa III, Esther van der Knaap, and Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

quality in the marketplace. Recently, fruit quality has been the most important selection criterion for repeat buyers of tomato. Because of this, tomato breeders have placed significant efforts in improving tomato fruit quality traits, including lycopene

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P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, and W. Roberts

Reports on the lycopene content of tomatoes vary widely with country and source of fruit (field, greenhouse, retail). This study was done to compare the lycopene content of organically grown tomatoes, and to compare fully red fruit to those ripened after harvest. Thirteen tomato cultivars (12 beefsteak and one Roma type) were planted in land designated as transitional organic and fertilized with organic poultry litter. No additional fertilizer was applied. Pesticides approved for organic use were applied as necessary. Fruit at the turning to firm red stages were harvested and held at 20 to 28 °C until the soft red stage was reached (about 2 to 8 days). Day 0 fruit at pink to soft red stages was harvested at the same time. Multiple harvests were made for 6 weeks, until 10 fruit per cultivar and ripeness stage and storage treatment were obtained. Lycopene content of firm red and soft red fruit were similar, and was 50 to 65 mg·kg–1 for all the round fruit types, and 115 mg·kg–1 for the Roma type. Fruit ripened after harvest without ethylene were able to obtain similar levels of lycopene, even in those fruit harvested with just a trace of color. `Sunmaster' and `Solar Set' tomatoes grown organically were similar in lycopene content to those grown in previous years in a conventional production system. These results show that organically grown tomatoes can achieve normal to high levels of lycopene. Tomatoes ripened after harvest without ethylene can achieve the lycopene content of fruit harvested fully ripe.

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Rita de Cássia Alves, Ana Santana de Medeiros, Mayara Cristina M. Nicolau, Francisco de Assis Oliveira, Leonardo Warzea Lima, Edna Maria M. Aroucha, and Priscila Lupino Gratão

.6 dichlorophenolindophenol 0.02%) and the values expressed in mg/100 g of citric acid; fruit color was determined by the digital colorimeter (CR-400/410; KONICA MINOLTA, Tokyo, Japan) and lycopene and β-carotene were determined by the method of Nagata and Yamashita (1992