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John M. Dole, Zenaida Viloria, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William Fonteno

flowers introduced to commercial markets each year, several show potential. ‘Lace Violet’ linaria, ‘Sunrise’ lupine, ‘Temptress’ poppy, and ‘Indian Summer’ rudbeckia are new species for the cut flower industry. ‘Karma Thalia’ dahlia, ‘Jemmy Royal Purple

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Wayne A. Mackay and Tim D. Davis

Seeds of four lupine species (L. microcarpus var. aureus, L. havardii, L. succulentis, and L. texensis) were subjected to 0, –2, –4, –6, or –8 bars osmotic potential using PEG 8000 solutions. Seeds of all species were acid scarified prior to placement in petri dishes containing the osmotic solutions. Petri dishes were placed in a seed germination chamber at 25°C with germination data collected daily for 15 days. Seeds of L. havardii, a desert species native to west Texas exhibited the greatest germination as osmotic potential declined while L. succulentis, a species adapted to moist sites, exhibited the greatest decline in germination as osmotic potential decreased. The other species exhibited intermediate germinability under the lower osmotic potentials.

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Rochele C. Strachan, E.G. Rhoden, and G. W. Carver

Growing crops using poor quality Later can result in poor germination and seedling survival. Low germination rates of various crops in the Bahamas result from the high salinity of the irrigation water. This study investigated the effects of using varying levels of sea water on germination and imbibition rates of lupine (Lupinus albus) seeds. In separate completely randomized design experiments, 100 lupine seeds were placed in conical flasks and either de ionized distilled water (DDW). 100%, 75%, 50% or 25% sea water added to each flask. Seeds ware removed from each flask every hour for the first 8 hours and every six hours thereafter for 48 hours. lmbibition rate is expressed as mg/ghr using the formula: (original weight - weight at y hr) × 1000)/(original weight x y hrs). Germination of seeds was measured beginning 3 days after imbibition began and the experiments were terminated after 10 days. The highest rate of imbibition (178.8 mg/g/hr) was recorded for lupine seeds placed in 25% sea water and the lowest of 152.8 mg/g/hr for seeds placed in 100% sea water after two hours. Germination ranged between 49% (100% sea water) to 94.7% for seeds placed in DDW. It would appear that if lupine seeds were primed with 25% sea water (approximately 150 ppm, NaCI) there would be no significant reduction in either the imbibition or the germination rates.

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Todd J. Cavins, John M. Dole, and Vicki Stamback

Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), larkspur [Consolida ambigua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heyw.], delphinium (Delphinium ×cultorum Voss.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), lupine (Lupinus hartwegii Lindl.), stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.], and pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams.) were grown in raised sandy loam ground beds in double-layered polyethylene-covered greenhouses which were either unheated (ambient) or had a 55 °F (13 °C) minimum night temperature in year 1 and 36 or 50 °F (2 or 10 °C) minimum night temperature in year 2. Results were species specific; however, the extreme low temperatures [21 °F (-6 °C)] in the unheated house limited delphinium and lupine production. The warmest greenhouses (55 and 50 °F) reduced production time for anemone, delphinium, larkspur, lupine (year 2), snapdragon (year 2),stock, and sunflower. The coolest greenhouses (unheated and 36 °F) increased stem lengths for anemone (year 2), delphinium, larkspur (year 1), lupine (year 2), snapdragon, stock, and sunflower. The coolest green-houses also yielded a profit or lower net loss for all species except delphinium, lupine, and snapdragon (year 2) for which profits were highest or net losses were lowest in the warmest greenhouses.

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Wayne A. Mackay

Seeds of Lupinus havardii Wats. and L. texensis Hook. were subjected to scarification, storage temperature (4 or 22 °C), and relative humidity (RH) treatments (11%, 23%, 52%, 75%, or 97% RH) for 12 months. Seed moisture increased as relative humidity increased with scarified seed having the greatest increase in seed moisture content regardless of storage temperature. For both species, the combination of seed scarification before storage, 75% RH, and 22 °C storage temperature resulted in a significant and rapid decline in germinability beginning at 4 months. Scarified L. texensis seed stored at 52% RH and 22 °C also exhibited a significant decline in germinability following 6 months storage. Seed of both species stored under all other conditions germinated similar to or higher than the initial germination rate after 12 months. These results clearly show that scarification can be performed before seed packaging as long as the seed packets are stored at ≤23% RH under 4 or 22 °C with no loss in germinability for at least 1 year.

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Douglas A. Hopper

Ninety-six uniform plants of each `Russell hybrid' and `Gallery' mix lupines sown 9 June 1995 were randomly assigned to 32 unique treatment combinations. On 14 Dec 1995, plants were either placed in a 17/13°C day/night temperature (DT/NT) greenhouse (COOL) or 22/18°C DT/NT greenhouse (WARM) as controls, or in a constant 4.5°C cooler in the dark for 6, 8 10, or 12 weeks. After cooling, plants were transplanted to #1 nursery cans (2.75 liter) using Sunshine mix #2 and were assigned randomly to the COOL or WARM greenhouse. Greenhouse control plants under natural days were transplanted at intervals similar to cooled plants. Days until visible bud and flowering were analyzed using SAS PROC GLM. Plants receiving long day (LD) flowered 7 to 10 weeks (46 to 70 days) after the start of LD forcing. Buds were visible in 30 to 35 days. Plants receiving natural days (ND) did not flower uniformly unless they were cooled for 12 weeks, yet flowering took longer (8 to 12 weeks) when compared with LD. Unfortunately, LD lighting for the entire forcing period caused excess stretching, so plants finished too tall for quality potted plants. Forcing in a COOL greenhouse delayed flowering about a week compared to the WARM greenhouse.

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Jerry M. Parsons and Tim D. Davis

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Jerry M. Parsons, Tim D. Davis, Steven W. George, and Wayne A. Mackay

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Osman Karaguzel, Ibrahim Baktir, Sadik Cakmakci, and Veli Ortacesme

The effects of method of application and dose of paclobutrazol on the growth and flowering characteristics of Lupinus varius L. were studied. On 17 Dec., seeds were sown into 18-cm pots (three seeds per pot) filled with a mixture consisting of 2 peat: 1 river sand (by volume). On 25 Mar., when 5% of the plants had elongated first internodes, doses of paclobutrazol at 0 (control), 0.625, 1.250, and 2.500 mg a.i./plant were applied to plants as a foliar spray or media drench. The application of paclobutrazol led to a slight shortening of the time to flowering, especially when applied as a foliar spray. Plant height and internode length, length, and internode length of the main inflorescence significantly decreased with increased doses of paclobutrazol and this also happened with the number of branches per plant, branch length, and length and internode length of branch inflorescence. On the contrary, stem, main, and branch inflorescence diameters significantly increased with increased doses of paclobutrazol, whether applied as a foliar spray or media drench. However, drench applications of paclobutrazol were consistently more effective than foliar spray treatments on most of the growth characteristics investigated. Paclobutrazol, in particular when applied as a foliar spray, also increased the number of flowers on main and branch inflorescences relative to the control, but media drenched applications of paclobutrazol at doses of 1.250 and 2.500 mg a.i./plant resulted in consistent significant reductions in the number of flowers on branch inflorescences. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-β[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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Wayne A. Mackay, Steve George, Jerry M. Parsons, Greg Grant, Tim D. Davis, and Larry Stein