the crabapple cultivar Flame after the different temperature treatments. Fig. 2. Different temperature treatments can alter anthocyanin accumulation in crabapple foliage. ( A ) Low temperature induces the accumulation of red color in Malus crabapple
Ji Tian, Zhen-yun Han, Li-ru Zhang, Ting-Ting Song, Jie Zhang, Jin-Yan Li, and Yuncong Yao
Ying Qu, Xue Bai, Yajun Zhu, Rui Qi, Geng Tian, Yang Wang, Yonghua Li, and Kaiming Zhang
As a major class of pigments in plant tissues, anthocyanins are considered stress indicators because their biosynthesis can be induced by many environmental factors, in which low temperature (LT) is a nonignorable inducer ( Lo Piero, 2015 ; Zhang
Wilson R. Maluf and Edward C. Tigchelaar
Factors contributing to genetic differences in low temperature seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined by comparing the cold germinating (CG) accession PI 341985 the non-cold germinating (NCG) ‘Centennial’ and random F4 lines with varying low temperature germinating abilities. Rate of radicle elongation at 10°C was similar for both parental genotypes indicating that differences in emergence at 10° are not due to growth rates, but rather to more rapid initiation of germination activities in CG. Preincubation of seeds in hypertonic salt solutions enhanced rate of germination at 10°C equally in both lines, but did not substitute for the genetically based cold germinating ability. Low temperature germinating ability is associated with sprouting at high osmotic concentrations, and with a several fold higher rate of increase in peroxidase activity during the first 10 days of incubation at 10°. Germination at 10° of the NCG lines is improved by activated carbon in the germination media whereas no enhancement occurred in CG lines. Inhibition and/or delay in germination at 10° in NCG lines is due, in part, to low temperature induced formation of activated carbon adsorbable inhibitors of seed germination.
P. Ragan and R. E. Nylund
Water-soluble fertilizers applied as starter solutions were evaluated for their influence on tolerance of non-hardened cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group) to freezing temperatures. Container-grown and bare-root seedlings were treated and the effects on low temperature tolerance 3 and 9 days after application were determined. Leaves were frozen using the excised leaf test and evaluated for injury by measuring conductance of the leachate. Potasium increased the tolerance to frost in both container-grown and bare-root plants; N decreased tolerance when N and K were applied, plants were less frost tolerant than those treated with no fertilizer. Greater freezing resistance resulted when starter solutions were applied 9 days before the leaves were exposed to freezing temperatures. Distinct differences in color between freeze-killed leaves and non-injured leaves occurred when they were pressed and dried. Leaves remained green after exposure to temperatures which caused at least 50% leaching, but yellowed when leaching did not exceed 50%.
Elzbieta U. Kozik and Todd C. Wehner
the light conditions after chilling ( Lasley et al., 1979 ; Rietze and Wiebe, 1989 ). Watermelon is susceptible to CI but is more resistant than cucumber ( Wehner and Mirdad, 1994 ). Low-temperature effects have been studied on germination, seedling
Gayle M. Volk, John Waddell, Leigh Towill, and L.J. Grauke
. In apple, pear, and azalea, a low temperature exotherm (LTE) of dormant woody stem sections, detected by DTA, correlated with injury to both xylem and pith that occurred during cooling ( Graham and Mullin, 1976 ; Montano et al., 1987 ; Quamme et al
J.H. Dunn, S.S. Bughrara, M.R. Warmund, and B.F. Fresenburg
Rhizomes of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) were subjected to controlled freezing tests in Jan. and Mar. 1993 and 1994 to determine their low-temperature tolerance. In 1994, `Belair', `Korean `Common', `Meyer', and `TGS-W10' rhizomes survived temperatures as low as -18 °C, while rhizomes of `Sunburst' survived -14 °C. `Cavalier', `Crowne', `Palisades', `Emerald', and `El Toro' were killed at -10 °C or warmer temperatures. Entries surviving exposure to -14 to -18 °C in 1994 controlled freezing tests received post-winter survival ratings in the field of 6.7 to 8.7 (9 = 100% green). Entries killed at higher freezing test temperatures were slower to recover after winter in the field, with ratings of 2.0 to 3.0. Shoot number produced after freezing was a better measurement for assessing low temperature tolerance than was shoot mass. Controlled freezing tests, using regrowth as a measure of hardiness, appear to be useful for identifying low temperature tolerance of zoysiagrasses in the early years of a field study.
Menahem Edelstein and Haim Nerson
Germination of melon seeds at low temperatures is cultivar-dependent. By screening hundreds of accessions (Nerson and Edelstein, 1982–1984, unpublished data), it was concluded that a temperature of 14 to 15 °C can be used to distinguish between
Yong In Kuk and Ji San Shin
Low temperature is detrimental to plant growth and development and thus affects the productivity of important warm-season food crops worldwide. Cucumber, for example, is susceptible to low temperatures throughout its growth cycle ( Jackman et al
Ming Ding, Beibei Bie, Wu Jiang, Qingqing Duan, Hongmei Du, and Danfeng Huang
; FAOSTAT, 2009 ) and the demand for watermelon seedlings (≈33 billion per year in China), seedling storage is essential for meeting market demands. The most common method of preserving seedlings for a short-term period is low-temperature storage in darkness