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Eun Young Nam, Jung Hyun Kwon, Ji Hae Jun, Kyeong Ho Chung, Seok Kyu Yun, Sung Jong Kim, and Yun Su Do

cultivars through the national peach and nectarine breeding program since 1962. ‘Yellow Dream’ is the first yellow-fleshed nectarine with low acidity (<0.30%). Before ‘Yellow Dream’, three nectarine cultivars with standard acidity (>0.80%), ‘Cheonhong

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Annick Moing, Laurence Svanella, Dominique Rolin, Monique Gaudillère, Jean-Pierre Gaudillère, and René Monet

Changes in metabolites were studied during the fruit development of two greenhouse grown peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars with low acidity (`Jalousia') or normal acidity (`Fantasia'). Both cultivars had the same sucrose concentration in fruit mesocarp at maturity. In the fruit juice, pH was higher and titratable acidity was lower for `Jalousia' than for `Fantasia' from 80 days after bloom to maturity. At four different times during fruit development, in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the vacuolar pH of fruit mesocarp. At 55 days after bloom, the vacuolar pH of fruit mesocarp was not significantly different between `Jalousia' and `Fantasia', whereas the juice pH was different between cultivars. The three major organic acids in fruit mesocarp were malic, citric, and quinic acids for both cultivars. Citric acid concentrations were similar in both cultivars until ≈85 days after bloom and then became significantly higher in `Fantasia'. A significantly higher concentration in malic acid in `Fantasia' than in `Jalousia' was observed from the end of the first growth phase to maturity. At maturity, `Fantasia' fruit had two and five times more malic and citric acid, respectively, than `Jalousia' fruit. The differences observed between `Jalousia' and `Fantasia' fruit for malic and citric acid concentrations accounted for the difference in titratable acidity. The differences in acid concentration appeared during the plateau between the two rapid growth phases of the fruit, i.e., far before the onset of maturation. The three major amino acids were asparagine, glutamic acid, and proline for both cultivars. Their concentration followed similar patterns in acid and low-acid fruit.

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Krista C. Shellie

A collection of 23 red and six white wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for viticultural performance in Parma, ID. Vine yield, fruit composition, and vegetative growth were measured over four growing seasons, and data were used to compare relative cultivar performance based on yield to pruning ratio and fruit maturity. Relative differences among cultivars in budbreak day of year [96 (6 Apr.) to 122 (2 May)] and days from budbreak to harvest (143 to 179 days) varied from year to year. The earliest and latest maturing cultivars in 3 of 4 years were ‘Blauer Portugieser’ (143 days), ‘Nebbiolo’ (177 days), ‘Barbera’ (179 days), ‘Orange Muscat’ (144 days), ‘Flora’ (149 days), ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ (166 days), and ‘Viognier’ (168 days). Cultivars differed in yield (2.4 to 7.0 tons/acre), vegetative vigor (4.6 to 20.4 yield/pruning weight), and harvest soluble solids concentration (21.1 to 26.5), but differences in harvest pH (3.0 to 4.1) and titratable acidity (2.48 to 13.03 g·L−1) varied from year to year. Average heat unit accumulation (1646) was 160 units higher than the 78-year site average. Few (less than 150) units accumulated in April and October, most units accumulated in July, and diurnal difference in air temperature was ≈15 °C. Performance results from this study can assist cultivar site selection by comparing climate data for an intended site with that of Parma. For example, the low acidity and earliness of ‘Blauer Portugieser’ suggests it is best suited to a site with less heat unit accumulation than Parma, and the high acidity and late maturity of ‘Barbera’, ‘Nebbiolo’, and ‘Carignan’ suggest these cultivars are best suited to a site with more heat unit accumulation than Parma. The inconsistent relationship between onset of budbreak and earliness observed in this study suggests opportunity to match short-season cultivars late to break bud such as Flora to short-season growing sites prone to late-season frost.

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Mark E. Herrington, Craig K. Chandler, Jennifer A. Moisander, and Claire E. Reid

. Sta., was used as a parent because of its high early-season yield potential and its desirable shape and low acidity. ‘Carlsbad’, a 1994 release from the University of California, was used as a parent because of its ability to produce firm, attractive

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John W. Scott, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Harry J. Klee, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Stephen M. Olson, Jerry A. Bartz, and Charles A. Sims

season when many breeding lines did not express much sweetness. This may have been the result of low acidity because the soluble solids and sugar levels were not high when tested but the solids:acid ratio was in the high group ( Table 3 ). Fig. 1

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José Egea, Manuel Rubio, José A. Campoy, Federico Dicenta, Encarna Ortega, María D. Nortes, Pedro Martínez-Gómez, Antonio Molina, Antonio Molina Jr, and David Ruiz

Rojo’ (right) apricot. Scale bar in centimeters. Organoleptic characteristics. At commercial-maturity stage, ‘Mirlo Blanco’, ‘Mirlo Anaranjado’, and ‘Mirlo Rojo’ fruits are sweet (14.1, 13.4, and 13.2 °Brix on average, respectively) with low acidity (1

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Catherine Belisle, Uyen T.X. Phan, Koushik Adhikari, and Dario J. Chavez

developed for low-acidity peaches with 10% SSC and TTA <0.9%, and for high-acid peaches with 11% SSC and TTA >0.9%, according to Hilaire (2003) . However, human taste is not primarily driven by SSC, it is rather a combination of sweet and sour sensations

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Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Carolyn F. Ross

’ fruit is very crisp, firm, and juicy ( Table 2 ) in texture and has a balanced flavor with a higher acid to sugar ratio than ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ ( Table 1 ), which have low acidity and are typically characterized as bland. Aroma is mild and apple-like and

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Eun Young Nam, Ji Hae Jun, Kyeong Ho Chung, Jung Hyun Kwon, Seok Kyu Yun, Ik Koo Yun, and Kang Hee Cho

harvested after ‘Harcot’ apricot. Moreover, it would be commercially profitable with superior fruit qualities such as large fruit size, sweetness, low acidity, and excellent functional properties. Availability Plant Variety Protection for ‘Tiffany’ was

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John R. Clark and James N. Moore

14.6%, higher than any of the other comparison cultivars ( Table 1 ). This sweetness coupled with low acidity provides a very sweet taste. Flavor rating averaged 8.1 (data not shown). Firmness of fruits average 8.5, near that of the very firm ‘White