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K. Delate

Sales of organic products reached $8 billion in the U.S. in 2000, continuing the nearly decade-long trend of 20% annual growth. In Iowa alone, organic production for all crops was 5265 ha (13,000 acres) in 1995 but 60,750 ha (150,000 acres) in 1999. Despite the growth in organic agriculture, our knowledge of organic farming systems remains limited. We have adopted a systems theory approach in our current research program at Iowa State University (ISU) to help address this gap in understanding. Systems theory holds that biological systems, such as agroecosystems, consist of integrated units of people, plants, animals, soil, insects and microorganisms, and each subsystem provides feedback to the other. In order to obtain input on research questions and experimental design, the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture and ISU held six focus groups across Iowa in 1998 before long-term site establishment. Producers and agricultural professionals at the focus groups supported the need for long-term agroecological research (LTAR) sites in four distinct agroecological zones in Iowa. The goal of each LTAR is to examine the short- and long-term physical, biological, and socioeconomic effects of organic and conventional farming systems. By establishing long-term experiments, we are testing the hypothesis that longer crop rotations, typical of organic farms, provide yield stability, improve plant protection, and enhance soil health and economic benefits compared to conventional systems with shorter rotations and greater off-farm inputs. Examples of research results from two LTAR experiments in Iowa include similar pepper (Capsicum annuum) and soybean (Glycine max) yields in the conventional and organic systems. Organic systems used mechanical weed control and locally produced compost in place of synthetic fertilizers. Feedback from the local farm associations that are responsible for farm stewardship and farm finances is inherent in the LTAR process.

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Gene M. Miyao, Dennis C. Bryant, Mark S. Kochi, and Israel G. Herrera

Canning tomato transplants were compared to direct seed in field trials to evaluate fruit yield and quality. Trials were conducted either at the University of California at Davis Long Term Research on Sustainable Agriculture field facility or in a commercial direct-seeded tomato field near Woodland. To closely match harvest dates of both propagation methods, transplants were mechanically planted after direct-seeded plants approached the 2 to 3 true-leaf stage. Trial design was replicated, factorial with propagation method and with plant population comparisons. Populations were 8712, 6534, 5227, and 4356 planting units per acre. Direct-seeded plots were thinned to clumps of three plants centered on 12, 16, 20, or 24 inches between clumps within the seed line. Transplants were 6-week-old, commercial, greenhouse-grown plants that were mechanically planted to match the direct-seed spacing. Plant rows were single lines per bed centered on 5 feet. The entire 100-foot plot length was mechanically harvested into specially designed portable weigh trailers to measure yield. Fruit yield between direct-seed and transplants were similar in two of the 3 years. In one of the 3 years, production problems were encountered resulting in low overall yield, but significantly lower with the transplants. `Halley', a cultivar common in the region, was used in all of the test years. Transplant yields were slightly reduced linearly as spacing between plants increased while yield from direct seed was less affected. Fruit quality tended to be similar among the treatments.

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Desmond R. Layne and Guido Schnabel

In 2003, a replicated long-term research trial was established on a commercial peach replant site with a history of Armillaria root rot and other soilborne diseases. The objectives of the trial were to determine the short- and long-term effects of preplant fumigation, rootstock, and preplant root dipping with mycorrhizal fungi and beneficial bacteria on tree growth, productivity, and survival. Preplant fumigants included none (control), methyl bromide, Telone II, or Enzone. Rootstocks tested included Guardian, Lovell, and Halford. Root dipping (or not) was with MycorTree. The scion cultivar was Big Red. There were a total of 24 experimental treatment combinations and the trial site comprised more than 1500 trees on 11.5 acres. By 2 years after planting, fumigation with Enzone was disadvantageous when compared with no treatment at all. Enzone-treated blocks had higher tree mortality or were significantly reduced in growth compared to other treatments. Preplant fumigation with Telone II or methyl bromide, however, resulted in reduced tree stunting and phytotoxicity and increased tree growth when compared to the untreated control. After 2 years, 10% of the total trees planted were dead. Half of these were from the Enzone treatment. Enzone does not appear to be a viable preplant fumigation product for South Carolina peach growers, based on this preliminary data. Both Guardian and Halford rootstocks had performance superior to Lovell during the first 2 years. Although Guardian trees were smaller than Halford at the time of planting, by the end of the second growing season, their TCA was not significantly different. There was no benefit to preplant root dipping with MycorTree. Experimental results were not influenced by the location of trees on the site.

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Christopher S. Walsh, Julia M. Harshman, Anna E. Wallis, Amy Barton Williams, Michael J. Newell, and George R. (G.R.) Welsh

Production of european pears (Pyrus communis L.) in the eastern United States is limited by a number of physiological and pathological problems. In an attempt to expand sustainable pear production in that region, a series of long-term field trials of asian pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. F) Nak. (syn. Pyrus serotina L.)] were established at two sites in Maryland. To compare precocity, productivity, and survival, nine asian pear cultivars and three European cultivars were planted in a replicated trial in 2010 at the Wye Research and Education Center (Wye REC). The asian pears were precocious and productive and many trees flowered and fruited in the second leaf. After the fourth leaf, survival of ‘Isi’iwasi’, ‘Shinsui’, ‘Kosui’, and ‘Olympic’ was good, while many ‘Hosui’ and ‘Ya Li’ (asian pear) trees as well as ‘Bartlett’ and ‘Golden Russett’ (european pear) trees had died at that point, following bloom infections of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). At Keedysville (WMREC), 18 asian pear cultivars in two established plantings were evaluated for their field tolerance to fire blight following a severe hailstorm. The cultivars Shin Li, Daisu Li, Shinsui, and Olympic fared as well as Magness, a fire blight–tolerant european pear cultivar that served as a benchmark in that evaluation. Conversely, ‘Hosui’, ‘Choju’, ‘Kosui’, ‘Seigyoku’, ‘Ya Li’, and ‘Ts’e Li’ were severely damaged. Three consumer tastings were conducted using fruit from the Wye REC trial. ‘Yoinashi’, ‘Atago’, ‘Shinko’, and ‘Olympic’ were well received by consumers. After tasting asian pears, most people, even those less familiar with the crop, reported they would consider purchasing the fruit and requested the names of local producers. Based on our long-term research results, there appears to be a good opportunity for locally produced asian pear fruit. With the correct cultivar selection for fire blight management, local growers should be able to produce this alternative crop sustainably and market their fruit profitably.

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organic landscaping. Patience in transitioning and understanding there are no “one size fits all” organic programs have been important lessons learned by practitioners. Long-term research that takes a whole systems approach is needed in order to examine

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John R. Clark

reducing sunburn damage in commercial apple production. He was quite clear that this technology development was a good example of a long-term research investment that should culminate with patented technology that would be introduced and marketed by a

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Michele R. Warmund

late spring frosts, low yield efficiency, high labor costs associated with hand harvesting, and lack of long-term research in the United States. There are relatively few nurseries producing grafted Chinese chestnut trees and tree costs are high ($16 to

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Stefano Macolino, Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, and Umberto Ziliotto

research is needed to determine the effect of different climatic conditions on WSC storage and early spring green-up. These results also demonstrate the need for additional longer-term research on the importance of WSC in early spring green-up of

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Ricardo Goenaga

to critical production questions. Before recommending a particular cultivar to fruit growers it is therefore essential to carry out long-term research to assess the sustainability of crop productivity. Currently, few researchers working in fruit

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Charles Benbrook

increase, soil resilience soars; Long-term research proves organic promise. Leopold Letter, Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture Iowa State University Lu, C. Toepel, K. Irish, R. Fenske, R.A. Barr, D.B. Bravo, R. 2006 Organic diets significantly lower