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John L. Snider, Vincent M. Russo, Warren Roberts, Elbert V. Wann, and Randy L. Raper

Long-term fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production data were used to estimate cultural and environmental impacts on marketable tomato yields in eastern Oklahoma. Quantifying the interactive effects of planting date and growing season duration and the effects of cumulative heat units and heat unit accumulation rate on marketable yields allowed for productivity estimates based on past temperature conditions. Simulated increases in air temperature were predicted to reduce yields and increase the amount of cropland needed to meet local consumption demands. Consequently, local tomato production in Oklahoma may be negatively impacted under elevated temperature conditions projected under global climate change.

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Samantha R. Nobes, Karen L. Panter, and Randa Jabbour

interest in domestic production has led to the need for region- and crop-specific information about best production practices to increase the local production potential and gain information about the unique environmental conditions ( Lamont, 2009 ; Ortiz

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Hannah R. Swegarden, Craig C. Sheaffer, and Thomas E. Michaels

Minnesota has conducted surveys regarding supply chains and local production of dry beans in Minnesota. Surveys from RSDP (unpublished data, 2014) suggest that there is new demand among consumers and restaurants for locally produced, organic dry beans. In

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Brian A. Kahn

]. The soil was prepared with a preplant-incorporated application of urea to supply nitrogen at 56 kg·ha −1 and of napropamide for weed control at 1.4 kg·ha −1 in both years. Neither raised beds nor plastic mulches were used per local production

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Wenjing Guan, Dean Haseman, and Dennis Nowaskie

Japan ( Sakata et al., 2008 ). Although using grafted cucumber plants is a routine practice in Asia, this technique is rarely used in the United States mainly because of the lack of information on the performance of the grafted plants under local

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Lucette Laflamme, Nicolas Tremblay, and Marie-Hélène Michaud

Angelica is grown in Quebec (Canada) for its root-bound medicinal properties. Matol Botanique Int., a major user of Angelica extracts, decided 4 years ago to promote local production in order to secure supplies and quality. However, the crop has to be started from seed that show low and variable germination behavior. Emergence occurs after ± 12 days and most of the germination if obtained after 20 to 40 days depending on seed origin and test conditions. Maximum germination ranges from 6 to 57%. Three treatments were first compared in order to stimulate germination: seed soaking in warm water for 24 h, watering germination trays with algae extracts and placing floating row covers over the trays. Angelica germination was significantly improved only by row covers with a maximum of 24% vs 19%. Results were obtained from experiments with other techniques (stratification, seed conditioning, etc,...) to further improve germination.

2Working for the Horticultural Research Centre, Laval University, Que.

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S. Alan Walters, Kurt T. Range, Bradley H. Taylor, and Wanki Moon

Because the demand for Asian vegetables is rapidly increasing in the United States, these crops may provide local market growers new revenue opportunities with high returns per acre. However, consumer attitudes and purchasing habits regarding Asian vegetable crops are poorly understood. Therefore, consumers were surveyed in two direct-market venues (on-farm and farmers market) to measure their familiarity and preferences for Asian vegetables. Attributes that may influence buying decisions such as purchase frequency, consumption behavior, and knowledge of preparation and use were measured. Respondents were generally not familiar with fresh Asian vegetables. Although greater than 80% consumed less than 5 lb per year and less than once per month, the consumers surveyed expressed a strong interest to learn more about these vegetables. Consumers purchased Asian vegetables most often at supermarkets (29.4%) and restaurants (28.1%), and much less at local direct markets (12.5%). Results also indicated that Asians as well as consumers with higher income levels were most likely to consume these vegetables. Thirty-eight percent of consumers strongly indicated that the availability of recipes for various Asian vegetables at direct markets would increase the likelihood for purchase; thus, the opportunity exists to add these vegetables to local production and marketing systems, if recipes were made available at the point-of-purchase.

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Zhifeng Gao, Marilyn Swisher, and Xin Zhao

Farmers’ markets (FMs) are perceived as ideal places for consumers to purchase fresh, local, and organic produce; for small- and midsized farmers, to gain reliable income; and for stimulating the local economy. However, with the organic and local food movements gaining momentum, it may be hard to keep up with all the expectations for FMs. This is because the rapid growth of FMs may provide more opportunities for vendors who use misleading labels and statements to attract consumers. The objective of this study was to determine consumer perception and knowledge of FMs as well as consumer persistence of shopping at FMs after finding out that the FM products do not meet their expectations. The results indicated that FM shopping atmosphere, environmental consciousness, product freshness, and local production were the main reasons for consumers shopping at FMs. This study showed that the majority of consumers had limited knowledge of individual FM vendors; most consumers would continue to shop at FMs even after purchasing products that did not meet their expectations; and consumers who believed buying locally at FMs was important were more likely to stop shopping if dishonest vendor practices were revealed than were consumers who used FMs mainly as places for socializing and meeting friends.

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Curt R. Rom, Jason McAfee, and Donn Johnson

Apple cultivar development is an important program necessary to sustain the existing fruit industry and stimulate new production systems for Arkansas and the region. The cultivar development program has two parts. First, currently available cultivars are tested with multiple trees for multiple years. Second, about 150 advanced selections from the Arkansas apple breeding program are evaluated in trials with multiple trees (2nd test) and in replicated trials (3rd test). The goal of both programs is to identify cultivars that have potential in the local production systems and for Arkansas' markets, and to identify those cultivars which are not adapted to the region. All cultivars and advanced selections are evaluated for ∂35 qualitative and quantitative characteristics, including time of bloom, time of harvest, length of harvest season, fruit aesthetic and internal quality, environmental adaptability especially to heat and high light, and insect and disease susceptibility. Primary diseases for which cultivars and selections are screened include fireblight, cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, black rot, white rot and bitter rot. Primary insect pests include mites, codling moth, plum curculio and Japanese beetle. Cultivars are evaluated in the field, under standard management conditions for five to seven years of production before summary evaluation. The program has identified cultivars including traditional cultivars, new cultivars, and heritage cultivars adaptable to the local and regional climates and suitable for those markets.

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Manuel C. Palada and Stafford M.A. Crossm

The Caribbean region is one major source of most herbs and spices consumed in the U.S. Although the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) is part of the Caribbean, local production of herbs and spices does not contribute significantly to exports into the U.S. market. Nevertheless, culinary herbs area” important horticultural crop in the USVI and their sale provides income for many small-scale growers. Little research has been done to improve field production in the USVI. Inefficient cultural practices used by growers result in low yields. Lack of information on fertilizer rates, irrigation and pest control methods is a major constraint to high yields. In 1988, the Agricultural Experiment Station initiated a project to improve field production of herbs and spices in the USVI. Use of drip irrigation, mulching and fertilizers has improved yields of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). This paper will discuss crop management studies to improve culinary herb production in the USVI. Increasing production may help reduce U.S. imports of these specialty crops from other Caribbean island nations.