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Alejandro Martínez-Bilbao, Amaya Ortiz-Barredo, Emilio Montesinos, and Jesús Murillo

northern Spain is potentially at a great risk because of the widespread use of self-rooted local cultivars whose susceptibility to fire blight, and to other important diseases of apple such as apple scab [ Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Wint.], is largely

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Fuad Gasi, Silvio Simon, Naris Pojskic, Mirsad Kurtovic, Ivan Pejic, Mekjell Meland, and Clive Kaiser

country. The results of the survey indicate a presence of a large number of local cultivars that are grown in the aforementioned regions. However, without knowing the genetic identity of these genotypes, it is impossible to estimate if local cultivars from

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Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo, Ana M. Ramos-Cabrer, Belén Díaz-Hernández, Javier Ascasíbar-Errasti, Federico Sau, and Marta Ciordia-Ara

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an important crop in Spain. This inventory of chestnut cultivars complements previous studies. We have located 152 chestnut cultivars in 131 municipalities covering 108.6 ha, with 72 new cultivars in addition to the 80 previously found. Fewer than 50% of these cultivars are extensively cultivated. Chestnuts in Spain are grown from sea level to 1100 m, but are more frequent between 200 and 800 m on northern-facing slopes. Most of the chestnuts are harvested from 25 Oct. to 10 Nov.

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad B. Rafiq, John M. Dole, Bilal Abdullah, and Kinza Habib

study was conducted to evaluate exotic cultivars of delphinium, snapdragon, and stock in comparison with local cultivars of snapdragon and stock for their production and postharvest performance as cut flowers in the agro-climatic conditions of Punjab

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Paolo Boccacci, Roberto Botta, and Mercè Rovira

, Boccacci et al. (2006) characterized and investigated the genetic relationships among 78 hazelnut cultivars, including 15 from Spain, using the same 16 SSR loci used in this study. We expanded the work to include 18 additional local cultivars from

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Innocenzo Muzzalupo, Francesca Stefanizzi, and Enzo Perri

; Bartolini et al., 2005 ). It is also likely that this number is underestimated because of inadequate information on minor local cultivars that are widespread in different olive-growing areas. At present, 2600 different olive cultivars have been described

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Jaeho Yoon, Dongcheng Liu, Wonseob Song, Weisheng Liu, Aimin Zhang, and Shaohua Li

The genetic relationships among 96 peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] genotypes and botanical varieties originating from different ecogeographical regions of China, Japan, North America, and South Korea were evaluated with 33 SSR markers screened from 108 published SSR markers developed for peach or sweet cherry (P. avium L.). The 33 SSRs detected polymorphisms among 96 genotypes and revealed a total of 283 alleles with an average of 8.6 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.40 (BPPCT041) to 0.98 (BPPCT009) with an average of 0.80. Unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distances classified genotypes into six groups, corresponding to their ecogeographical origin. Group I consisted of northern Chinese and northwestern Chinese local cultivars, and was divided into two subgroups, white and yellow peaches. Group II contained mainly southern Chinese local, Japanese, and North American cultivars and can be divided into four subgroups: Japanese white, Chinese flat, North American yellow, and some Chinese local ornamental peach cultivars. Groups III, IV, and V were comprised of Chinese local ancient cultivars, and contained `Xinjiangdatianren' and `Renmiantao', Chinese dwarf cultivars, and `Fenshouxing', respectively. Group VI had only `Baishanbitao', a Chinese ornamental cultivar. Northern and northwestern Chinese local cultivars clustered together with a greater diversity than southern Chinese local cultivars, indicating that the northern and northwestern Chinese local cultivars are similar ecotypes, and southern Chinese local cultivars are a subset of the northern Chinese group. Moreover, the Japanese and North American genotypes had a close phylogenetic relationship with southern Chinese local cultivars. The taxonomic placement of P. ferganensis (Kost. et Kiab) Kov. et Kost. and the phylogenetic relationship of `Baishanbitao' with peaches are discussed.

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Glenn Takai* and Mari Marutani

Hot peppers (Capsicum sp.) were introduced to Guam and other Mariana Islands and became a “necessary” ingredient of local cuisine. Seven hot pepper accessions, including four local cultivars, were grown in calcareous soils on Guam and evaluated for total yield, marketable yield, the number of fruit, and weight of fruit. `Hot Beauty', a Taiwan cultivar, produced the highest total and marketable yields. `Group Zest', another Taiwan cultivar, was the earliest maturing cultivar and produced the largest fruits. `Guafi', a local cultivar, was the latest maturing cultivar. Consumer preference for hot pepper is being studied as fresh market and as processed hot sauce.

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K.B. Paul

Most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa plant local cultivars introduced generations ago. Various national and international organizations and development projects introduce annually hundreds of improved germplasms to a country, and test these under farmer conditions for adaptability and acceptability. Although some local varieties perform well under traditional farming practices, many disease and insect pest resistant improved varieties out-yield local cultivars even under low-input production conditions of Africa. Regrettably, the seed production and distribution system in most of these countries are poorly developed; thus the promising varieties remain unavailable to the majority of farmers. To overcome this problem, the University of Arkansas-led Rwanda Farming Systems Research Project (FSRP) personnel trained farmer-cooperators in the production of good quality bean (Phaselous sp.) seeds. This, and the development of a farmer to farmer seed distribution system that led to quick diffusion of improved bean varieties in the project area will be discussed.

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Makki A. Al-Khafaji and M. M. Musalat

Application of Phyll set (G A3 + NAA) on whole trees of local cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and lemon (C. Limon Burmann) at full bloom stage was made during 1988 and 1989 seasons. All concentrations of Phyll set (12, 24 and 48 mg/l) increased fruit set and yield of sweet orange. Lemon yields were increased only at 12 mg/l Phyll set. The use of Phyll set as a new growth regulator for improved fruit quality will be discussed.