seeds germinated on the walls of the vessel where nutrient liquid remained and seeds germinated faster than those on a solid medium. Given that in vitro liquid culture has been used successfully to cultivate a number of important nonorchids such as
Wei-Ting Tsai and Chien-Young Chu
Ayse Tascan, Jeff Adelberg, Mevlut Tascan, Agnes Rimando, Nirmal Joshee, and Anand K. Yadav
agar to gelrite ( Franck et al., 2004 ), or switching agar to liquid may result in more hyperhydric plantlets. Different physical interventions have been explored to prevent hyperhydricity in liquid culture. For instance, sealing the culture vessels
Choun-Sea Lin, Krishnan Kalpana, Wei-Chin Chang, and Na-Sheng Lin
medium. Multiple shoot proliferation. To compare liquid culture [no shaking and shaking (orbital, 120 rpm)] and culture on semisolid medium for their ability to induce shoot proliferation, we cultured three clusters of shoots, each having three to
Sonja L. Maki, Maria Delgado, and Jeffrey W. Adelberg
The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, ancymidol, was used during micropropagation of Hosta `Blue Vision'. Shoot growth and bud division was monitored every 2 weeks over an 8-week period in media containing 1 μm benzyladenine (BA) and various levels of ancymidol (0, 0.1, 0.32, 1 and 3.2 μm). Ancymidol prolonged bud division from 2 to 6 weeks and increased the total number of buds produced. Shoots grown in medium containing ancymidol had greater fresh weight, shorter-broader leaves and less dry weight than those grown without ancymidol. Reduced dry weight of buds grown in the presence of ancymidol was correlated to the depletion of sugars in the medium. A bioassay using `Saturn' tall rice revealed that ancymidol was active for the entire 8-week culture period.
Jeffrey Adelberg, Maria Delgado, and Jeffery Tomkins
Two tetraploid and two diploid varieties of daylily were micropropagated on a shaker in MS liquid medium containing high and low sugar levels (3% and 6% sucrose), 2 BA levels (0.32 and 3.2 μm), at two densities (57 and 171 explants/L), in the presence (0.32 μm) and absence of ancymidol. Biomass and media use were partitioned for the four genotypes and 32 cultural conditions with three replications (4 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3). Genotype greatly effected f resh weight, dry weight, media, sugar and water use, but ploidy had little effect. Vessels at high density (171 explants/L) produced 1.8× more fresh weight, 1.4× more dry weight, used 1.6× more media and sugar than low density (57 explants/L). Plants from low density were 1.7× larger, 2× greater dry weight, and used 2× more sugar and media, than from high-density culture (per explant). Doubling the initial sugar level increased dry weight and sugar use 1.3×. There was a linear relation between sugar residual and percentage of dry weight (R 2 = 0.55, P < 0.0001), where a 1% increase in °Brix raised percentage of dry weight 1.8 units over the range of 9% to 22%. Ancymidol and BA had less effect on plant size, sugar and media use than genotype or plant density. Greenhouse survival was reduced by including ancymidol (90% to 30%) and increased BA concentration (85% to 35%). Lab plant density and initial sugar concentration had no apparent effect on greenhouse growth. `Barbara Mitchell' had greatest mass, used more sugar and media than the other varieties, yet had least greenhouse growth. Nutrient use with `Barbara Mitchell' was linearly correlated (R 2>80%) to lab growth for seven of 12 ions. P and Fe supply was inadequate to support optimal growth, as indicated by low residual in media (>1% of MS formulation).
Noah J. Langenfeld and Bruce Bugbee
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is critical for aerobic life in aquatic environments. Rapid and accurate measurements of DO are necessary to quantify the rate of oxygen uptake and maintain optimum conditions in root zones. DO meters are available across a price range of USD99 to more than USD1000. We compared three meters for stability, response time, and accuracy in freshwater [tap water, 0 g⋅L–1 sodium chloride (NaCl)] and saline water (simulated seawater, 35 g⋅L–1 NaCl) across multiple temperatures. The Yellow Springs, Inc. 550A (YSI) and Sper Scientific 850048 (Sper) meters were stable across a range of water temperatures (12–38 °C) and salinity. The Smart Sensor Roeam AR8210 drifted ±50% within minutes after calibration and was not evaluated further. In freshwater, the YSI meter was within 4% and the Sper meter was within 5% of the theoretical value at 12 and 22 °C. Meters were less accurate at 38 °C. The accuracy in saline water was similar to freshwater. Across temperature and salinity, the response time averaged 10 s for the YSI meter and 15 s for the Sper meter. We conclude that the YSI and Sper meters can provide rapid, stable, and accurate measurements of DO.
Rebecca C.-C. Hsu and Yung-I Lee
a green coconut and was added into the culture medium immediately. The pH value was adjusted to 5.6 before autoclaving. Twenty milliliters of medium were placed into each Erlenmeyer flask (125 mL). In this experiment, the liquid culture was used for
Chun-qiong Huang, Guo-dao Liu, and Chang-jun Bai
-resistant accessions is necessary to provide fundamental information toward the genetic breeding of zoysiagrass. In general, soil or liquid culture is used to screen for Al-resistant accessions. In soil culture, plant materials are grown on acid soil with high Al
Jericó J. Bello-Bello, Adriana Canto-Flick, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Eunice Gómez-Uc, Manuel L. Robert, Lourdes G. Iglesias-Andreu, and Nancy Santana-Buzzy
Scaled-up proliferation and regeneration of Nerine in liquid cultures. Part I. The induction and maintenance of proliferating meristematic clusters by paclobutrazol in bioreactors Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 39 111 117
Chia-Yun Ko, Tsai-Yun Lin, Chin-Wen Ho, and Jei-Fu Shaw
–2.25 × A646) + chlorophyll b (18.29 × A646–4.58 × A663) ( Hanfrey et al., 1996 ). Total chlorophyll content (mg·g −1 ) was calculated as chlorophyll concentration (mg·mL −1 ) × volume (mL)/fresh weight of sample (g). Establishment of liquid culture