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Weiping Zhong, Zhoujun Zhu, Fen Ouyang, Qi Qiu, Xiaoming Fan, and Deyi Yuan

the accumulation of large amounts of nutrients before germination, usually starch or lipid droplets. These changes in the nutritional components are closely related to pollen development. The duration and type of nutrient accumulation in anthers vary

Open access

Charles Fontanier, Justin Quetone Moss, Lakshmy Gopinath, Carla Goad, Kemin Su, and Yanqi Wu

the lipid bilayer shifts from a liquid crystalline state to gel crystalline state ( Raison and Orr, 1990 ). This solidification of membrane lipids at low temperature is followed by contraction and the formation of cracks ( Lyons and Raison, 1970

Free access

Qi Zhang, Jack Fry, Channa Rajashekar, Dale Bremer, and Milton Engelke

membranes and chloroplast membranes may form a hexagonal II phase (H II ), which compromises membrane integrity and cell function ( Cullis and De Kruijff, 1979 ; Uemura and Steponkus, 1997 , 1999 ). Thus, during cold acclimation, changes in lipid

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Dongmei Wei, Huimin Xu, and Ruili Li

differ with plant species. One characteristic of anther development is the accumulation of nutrients, generally polysaccharides or neutral lipids, in the pollen pool to fuel the subsequent pollen ontogeny, germination on the stigma surface, and growth of

Free access

Charles F. Forney

Mojtaba Massoudi is gratefully acknowledged for his technical assistance in lipid analysis. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby

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Kemin Su, Dale J. Bremer, Richard Jeannotte, Ruth Welti, and Celeste Yang

lipid bilayers with associated and embedded proteins, have long been proposed as one of the prime sites of vulnerability or tolerance to heat and cold stress in plants ( Armond et al., 1980 ; Quinn, 1988 ; Vigh et al., 1993 ). The composition of lipid

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Bruce D. Whitaker

Abbreviations: ASG, acylated steryl glycoside; DGDG, digalactosyldiacylglycerol; FS, free sterols; GL, galactolipids; GlyL, glycolipid; MGDG, monoga-lactosyldiacylglycerol; NL, neutral lipid; PA, phosphatidic acid; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PE

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

active oxygen species (AOS) such as singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), superoxide (O 2 .− ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and hydroxyl radicals (OH·) ( Asada, 1999 ). These species can cause oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins ( Smirnoff

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Luther C. Carson, Joshua H. Freeman, Kequan Zhou, Gregory Welbaum, and Mark Reiter

to $41 million in 2009 ( Bernick, 2009 ; Soyatech, 2010 ). Agronomic soybeans have high lipid content and are commonly used as an industrial source of oil. However, high oil content gives edamame an undesirable flavor ( Konovsky et al., 1994

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Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang

Previous studies found that high soil temperature is more detrimental than high air temperature for the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris L.). The objective of the study was to investigate changes in fatty acid composition and saturation levels in leaves and roots for creeping bentgrass exposed to high soil temperature. Shoots and roots of `Penncross' plants were subjected to a differential air/soil temperature of 20/35 °C in a growth chamber. Soil temperature was controlled at 35 °C using an immersion circulating heater in water bath. Shoot injury induced by high soil temperature was evaluated by measuring level of lipid peroxidation expressed as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content, chlorophyll content, and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of leaves. MDA content increased while chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm decreased at high soil temperature. The content of total fatty acids and different species of fatty acids were analyzed in both leaves and roots. Total fatty acid content in leaves increased initially at 5 days of high soil temperature and then decreased at 15 days, while total fatty acid content in roots decreased, beginning at 5 days. Linolenic acid was the major fatty acid in leaves and linoleic acid and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids in roots of creeping bentgrass. Leaf content of all fatty acid components except oleic acid increased initially and then decreased at high soil temperature. Root content of all fatty acid components except palmitoleic acid and oleic acid decreased, beginning at 5 d of high soil temperature. Oleic acid in leaves and palmitoleic and oleic acid in roots did not change during the entire experimental period. Leaf content of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids increased during the first 5 to 10 days of high soil temperature and decreased at 15 and 25 days, respectively. Root content of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids decreased beginning at 5 days of high soil temperature. Double bond index decreased in both leaves and roots. High soil temperature induced changes in fatty acid composition and saturation levels in leaves and roots, and this could be associated with physiological damages in leaves even though only roots were exposed to high temperature.