`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) harvested at the preclimacteric and climacteric stages of ripening were stored for up to 8 months at 1C in air and under various controlled atmosphere(s) (CA), including ultralow oxygen (ULO) storage conditions. Aroma volatiles were measured at 2-month intervals in fruit ripened for 10 days at 20C. Fruits harvested at the climacteric stage produced more volatiles during all storage conditions than preclimacteric fruit. All CA storage treatments suppressed aroma production compared to cold storage. The greatest reduction was found under ULO (1% O2) and high CO2 (3%) conditions. A partial recovery of aroma production was observed when CA fruits were subsequently stored for 14 days under cold storage conditions. Suppression of aroma production under ULO conditions seems to be related to low fatty acid synthesis and/or degradation, and is restricted to volatiles having a straight C chain. Production of branched C-chain aroma compounds was suppressed by high CO2 concentrations. The reduced capacity of aroma production during shelf life after ULO storage is confined to apple cultivars producing mainly ester compounds with a straight C-chain, e.g., `Golden Delicious'.
A. Brackmann, J. Streif, and F. Bangerth
Bruce D. Whitaker and Gene E. Lester
Increases in phospholipase D [PLD (EC 220.127.116.11)] and lipoxygenase [LOX (EC 18.104.22.168)] activities are thought to play a critical role in senescence of mesocarp tissues in netted and nonnetted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruits. We have cloned and characterized two full-length cDNAs, CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1, encoding PLDα and LOX proteins in honeydew melon (C. melo Inodorus Group cv. Honey Brew). Relative levels of expression of the corresponding genes were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in developing and mature fruit mesocarp tissues [20-60 d after pollination (DAP)], as well as in roots, leaves, and stems from 4-week-old and flowers from 6- to 7-week-old plants. The coding regions of CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1 cDNAs are, respectively, 2427 and 2634 nucleotides long, encoding proteins 808 and 877 amino acids in length. CmPLDα1 is very similar to PLDα genes from castor bean (Ricinis communis L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (77% nucleotide identity), and is the first PLD gene cloned from a cucurbit species. CmLOX1 has 94% nucleotide identity to a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) LOX gene expressed in roots and 80% identity to cucumber cotyledon lipid body LOX. In general, transcript of CmPLDα1 was much more abundant than that of CmLOX1, but relative levels of transcript in the various organs and tissues were similar for the two genes. Expression was highest in roots, flowers, and fruit mesocarp tissues. CmPLDα1 expression in fruit was essentially constitutive throughout development, although maximum levels occurred at 50 and 55 DAP, respectively, in middle and hypodermal mesocarp. CmLOX1 expression was generally higher in middle than in hypodermal mesocarp with maximum transcript levels occurring at 55 and 50 DAP, respectively. Overall, the patterns of expression of CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1 are consistent with a model in which their encoded enzymes act in tandem to promote or accelerate senescence in fruit mesocarp tissues.
Qiuyue Ma, Shushun Li, Jing Wen, Lu Zhu, Kunyuan Yan, Qianzhong Li, Shuxian Li, and Bin Zhang
gain a better understanding of the regulation of lipid metabolism. In this study, the FA content and composition in developing seeds were analyzed and a time-series analysis of transcriptomic data was performed to reveal DEGs in six phases of A
Suping Zhou, Marsha Palmer, Jing Zhou, Sarabjit Bhatti, Kevin J. Howe, Tara Fish, and Theodore W. Thannhauser
, stress proteins; Group 2, gene expression; Group 3, nascent protein processing and protein folding; Group 4, protein degradation; Group 5, carbohydrate metabolism; Group 6, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism; Group 7, lipid metabolism; Group 8, ATPases
Bruce D. Whitaker
Altered metabolism of membrane lipids has been proposed as a mechanism for the beneficial effects of postharvest calcium treatment on apple quality. A previous study showed that after transfer of apples stored 6 months at 0C to 20C, calcium-treated fruit exhibited slower loss of galactolipid and altered levels of sterol conjugates. The present study of lipids in “control” fruit was conducted as a prelude to further in-depth analyses of the effects of postharvest calcium and heat treatments on lipid metabolism in apples during and after cold storage. Neutral lipid, glycolipid (GL), and phospholipid (PL) fractions were obtained by column chromatography followed by TLC separation of GL and PL classes. The major GL were steryl glycosides (SG), acylated steryl glycosides (ASG), cerebrosides (CB), and mono- and digalactosyl diacylglycerols. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) > P-ethanolamine (PE) > P-irositol (PI) were the major PL. The fatty acids of PC and PE were quite similar, whereas those of PI were more saturated. CB included only 2-hydroxy fatty acids. Among the steryl lipids, free sterols > SG > ASG, with beta-sitosterol >90% of the total sterol in each.
Bruce D. Whitaker, Joshua D. Klein, and William S. Conway
Postharvest heat treatment of apples maintains fruit firmness and reduces decay during storage. Four days at 38C are beneficial, but 1 or 2 days are detrimental. The cellular basis of these effects may involve changes in cell wall and membrane lipid metabolism. Lipids from hypodermal tissue of `Golden Delicious' apples were analyzed after 0, 1, 2, or 4 days at 38C. Major lipids included phospholipids (PL), free sterols (FS), steryl glycosides (SG), and cerebrosides (CB). Galactolipids (GL) were minor components. PL content fell ?10% after 1 day at 38C, was unchanged after 2 days, and began to rise again after 4 days. PL class composition did not change with heating, but fatty-acid unsaturation declined throughout. FS and CB content and composition changed little, whereas SG content cropped by ≈20% over 4 days. GL fell ≈50% during 1 day at 38C, with no change at days 2 or 4. A burst of PL catabolism followed by recovery of synthesis may in part explain the different effects of 1-, 2-, or 4-day heat treatments. GL loss (in plastids) may be related to the effect of heat on fruit color (yellowing).
Justin R. Morris
The moderate consumption of red wine, grapes, raisins, and grape juice has a demonstrably positive effect on human health. Scientifically conducted surveys have shown that the effects of moderate intake of red wine reduces circulatory disease. Legislative efforts on labeling red wine to show the scientific evidence of this statement are receiving favorable attention. The antioxidant resveratrol, present in the skins of the grape in any of its various forms, is believed to be the agent primarily responsible for the healthful benefits demonstrated. It has been shown to affect lipid metabolism in higher mammals. Studies of resveratrol content in a variety of wine grapes are being performed at the Univ. of Arkansas, as well as at other institutions. Red wine (in contrast to white wine and other alcoholic beverages) reduces clotting ability and increases levels of high-density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol), which diminishes the risk of coronary problems. Grape skin extract, red wines, and red juice appear to enhance the ability of blood vessels to resist vasoconstriction and to contribute to antithrombotic activity. In laboratory tests, several known antioxidants in wine out-performed vitamin E, the current best-known dietary antioxidant.
Daisuke Sakamoto, Yuri Nakamura, Hiroyoshi Sugiura, Toshihiko Sugiura, Toshikazu Asakura, Mineyuki Yokoyama, and Takaya Moriguchi
endodormancy breaking by KODA in terms of lipid metabolism, that is, major changes in the phospholipid contents, a large decrease in linoleic acid (C18:2) concomitant with an increase in linolenic acid in ‘Delicious’ apple buds was observed when the chilling
Dongmei Wei, Huimin Xu, and Ruili Li
late microspore stage. The cytoplasm density increased and numerous neutral lipids were present in tapetal cells, which implied that these characteristics were closely related to active lipid metabolism in tapetal cells. The sporopollenin exine of
Diheng Zhong, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang
have potential for use as biomarkers to select for drought-tolerant turfgrass genotypes. Literature Cited Anh, T.P.T. Borrel-Flood, C. Vieira da Silva, J. Marie Justin, A. Mazliak, P. 1985 Effects of water stress on lipid metabolism in cotton leaves