Abbreviations: LD, long days: LIP, limited inductive photoperiod; SD, short days; SLD, short-long day. 1 `Former Graduate Student. 2 Associate Professor. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under
M. Peggy Damann and Robert E. Lyons
M. Peggy Damann and Robert E. Lyons
To examine the effects of chilling and a limited inductive photoperiod (LIP) on flowering of Chrysanthemum superbum Bergmans ex J. Ingram `G. Marconi' and `Snow Lady', Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg `Sunray', and Coreopsis lanceolata L. `Early Sunrise', seeds were sown and plants were maintained in the greenhouse in short days (SDs) for 7 weeks, followed by 4 months of natural outdoor chilling for all plants except 10 of each cultivar, which remained in the greenhouse under SDs for the duration of the experiment. Upon return to greenhouse conditions, 10 plants of each cultivar were placed in SDs, all other chilled plants were placed in long-days (LDs) and subsequently transferred to SDs after receiving 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 LD cycles. Ten chilled plants of each cultivar remained in LDs for the duration of the experiment. Continuous SDs without chilling resulted in 70%, 40%, 20%, and 10% flowering in `Snow Lady', `Early Sunrise', `Sunray,' and `G. Marconi', respectively. Chilling, followed by a return to continuous SDs, improved flowering in all cultivars compared to SDs without chilling. The number of LD cycles required for 100% flowering varied with cultivar. Ninety percent of the chilled `Early Sunrise' plants flowered with no LD cycles, and 100% flowering was produced by as few as six LD cycles. In `Snow Lady', 100% flowering occurred in chilled plants with no LD cycles and those receiving at least 10 LD cycles. With only six or eight LD cycles, 90% and 80% of these plants, respectively, still flowered. The percentage of `G. Marconi' and `Sunray' plants flowering ranged from 40% to 100% in the chilled treatments, with a general trend for more flowering with an increase in the number of LD inductive cycles. Continuous LDs following chilling resulted in as high or higher percent flowering than any other treatments (100% for `G. Marconi' and 90% for `Sunray'). The effects of LIP were evident in both Coreopsis cultivars but in neither Chrysanthemum superbum cultivar. There was a linear relationship between the number of LDs received and stem length at first flower in `Sunray' and `Early Sunrise'. In both cultivars, a reduction in stem elongation of about 10 cm occurred when plants received only 6 LDs compared to 22 LDs. The number of days from the start of LDs to first flower increased linearly as the number of LD cycles before the transfer back to SDs increased.
Ryan M. Warner
and Stout, 1991 ). The length of the juvenile phase and the minimum number of inductive photoperiod cycles necessary for floral initiation can be determined with limited inductive photoperiod or reciprocal transfer experiments, in which plants are
Pamela M. Lewis, Allan M. Armitage, and James M. Garner
Gooseneck loosestrife (Lysimachia clethroides Duby) rhizomes were cooled for 10 weeks at 4 ± 1 °C prior to greenhouse forcing in continuous long days (LD); continuous short days (SD); 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks of SD followed by LD until anthesis; and 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks of LD followed by SD. None of the plants grown in continuous SD flowered, and fewer than 30% of plants flowered when grown in 4, 6, or 8 weeks of LD followed by SD for 21 to 25 weeks. At least 10 weeks of LD prior to SD were required to obtain 70% flowering. Plants receiving continuous LD or 4, 6, or 8 weeks of SD followed by LD flowered in the highest percentages (85% to 90%), but only 10% of plants receiving 10 weeks of SD followed by LD flowered. The number of greenhouse days required for visible bud formation and anthesis increased linearly as initial SD exposure increased, but the number of racemes produced by flowering plants was not affected. Plant height was greatest in continuous LD, and decreased linearly as initial SD exposure prior to LD increased from 0 to 10 weeks. Plants grown in continuous SD remained vegetative rosettes throughout the experiment, and their height increased linearly as initial LD prior to SD increased from 0 (continuous SD) to 10 weeks. These results demonstrate that supplemental LD lighting can promote growth and flowering in this species and that lighting can be discontinued 3 weeks before harvest of cut flower crops.
Richard L. Harkess and Robert E. Lyons
A study was undertaken to determine the rate of floral initiation in Rudbeckia hirta. R. hirta plants were grown to maturity, 14-16 leaves, under short days (SD). Paired controls were established by placing half of the plants under long days (LD) with the remainder left under SD. Beginning at the start of LD (day 0), five plants were harvested daily from each photoperiod group for twenty days. Harvested meristems were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde - 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) for 24 hrs, dehydrated in an ethanol series, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 8 μm. Serial sections were stained with Methyl-green Pyronin, with adjacent sections treated with RNase for nucleic acid comparison. All events of floral initiation were identified, The results of limited inductive photoperiod indicate that 16-18 LD were required for flowering.
Fumiko Kohyama, Catherine Whitman, and Erik S. Runkle
of the red to far-red ratio of night-interruption lighting on flowering of photoperiodic crops Acta Hort. 956 179 186 Damann, M.P. Lyons, R.E. 1996 Natural chilling and limited inductive photoperiod affect flowering in two Asteraceae genera J. Amer