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C. Michael Bourget

expenses (electricity use as well as replacement lamps). Naturally, advances in lighting technology are of great interest to the CEA community for these very reasons. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the most recent lighting technology to enter the CEA

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Gary W. Stutte

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are solid-state semiconductor devices that produce narrow spectrum light when voltage is applied. The use of LEDs in photobiology research was reported in the 1980s and the concept of using LEDs for plant lighting was

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Tian-Ye Chen, Chang-chi Chu, Thomas J. Henneberry, and Kai Umeda

Insects in a commercial poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) greenhouse were monitored with yellow sticky card (YC) traps and YC equipped with 530-nm lime green light-emitting diodes (LED-YC) traps from 3 June to 25 Nov. 2002. Pest insects were: dark-winged fungus gnat (Bradysia coprophila), sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) biotype B (= B. argentifolii), western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and leafhopper (Empoasca sp.). Natural enemies were: minute pirate bug (Orius tristicolor), parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera), and rove beetles (Staphylinidae). Over the 24 weeks of the experiment, LED-YC traps captured more dark-winged fungus gnats, sweet potato whiteflies, leafhoppers, and rove beetles compared with YC traps. Capture of western flower thrips, minute pirate bugs, and parasitic wasps were not significantly increased on the YC traps equipped with LEDs. The results indicate that the LED-YC traps attract three major pest insects in poinsettia greenhouses and do not catch more beneficial, minute pirate bugs and parasitic wasps, but may catch significant number of rove beetles. The results suggest that LED-YC traps may be useful to monitor and reduce pest populations in greenhouses.

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Hyeon-Hye Kim, Gregory D. Goins, Raymond M. Wheeler, and John C. Sager

a trade name or proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement, guarantee, or warranty by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Quantum Devices, Inc. (Barneveld, Wis.) holds a patent (No. 5,012,609) on light-emitting diodes as an

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

765 D’Souza, C. Yuk, H.G. Khoo, G.H. Zhou, W. 2015 Application of light-emitting diodes in food production, postharvest preservation, and microbiological food safety Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 14 719 740 Davis, P.A. Burns, C. 2016 Photobiology in

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Neil C. Yorio, Gregory D. Goins, Hollie R. Kagie, Raymond M. Wheeler, and John C. Sager

either Dynamac Corporation or National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Quantum Devices, Inc., Barneveld, Wis., holds a patent (no. 5,012,609) on light-emitting diodes as an illumination source for plant growth. The cost of publishing this paper was

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Kun Li, Qi-Chang Yang, Yu-Xin Tong, and Ruifeng Cheng

light-emitting diode (LED) panels (60 × 25 × 1.2 cm; FHT Co., Shenzhen, China) were located on the right side and 10 or 30 cm away from the seedling. After 12 h, the LED panels moved to the left side in several minutes (regardless of the speed); 1 cm = 0

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Gary W. Stutte, Sharon Edney, and Tony Skerritt

, ultraviolet radiation, mineral imbalances, water stress, mechanical injury, and pathogen attack ( Gould, 2004 ). A promising electric light source for controlled-environment plant growth is light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are solid-state, durable

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Paul Deram, Mark G. Lefsrud, and Valérie Orsat

After-effect of light emitting diodes lighting on tomato growth and yield in greenhouse Sodininkystė ir Daržininkystė 28 115 126 Brown, C. Schuerger, A. Sager, J. 1995 Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with

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Dave Llewellyn, Katherine Schiestel, and Youbin Zheng

and LED SL treatments are shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1. Relative quantum flux of the high-pressure sodium (HPS; solid line) and light-emitting diode (LED; dotted line) supplemental lighting treatments over the photosynthetically active radiation spectral