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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

Sky’, and ‘Vulcan’ lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) plants. Fig. 1. (A–G) Spectral quality of 4.5 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 delivered from day-extension low intensity light-emitting diode (LED) lamps [7:11:33:49 blue:green:red:far red; (control)], or 16 h of (A

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Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez

supplemented with ≈70 µmol·m −2 ·s –1 from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps or light-emitting diodes (LEDs; 87:13 red:blue light) from 0600 to 2200 hr . Impatiens, geranium, marigold, petunia, and vinca were placed under treatments on 1 Oct. 2013, 4 Nov. 2013

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Neil C. Yorio, Gregory D. Goins, Hollie R. Kagie, Raymond M. Wheeler and John C. Sager

Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 μmol·m-2·s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

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Aisu Gu, Wenfang Liu, Chao Ma, Jin Cui, Richard J. Henny and Jianjun Chen

A. andraeanum ‘Alabama’. Fig. 1. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted on the ceiling of growth chambers for evaluating rooting and growth of adventitious shoots of A. andraeanum ‘Alabama’ where R = red LED with a peak wavelength of 658 nm, B

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Kui Lin, Zhi Huang and Yong Xu

antenna complex LHCII J. Plant Physiol. 167 69 73 Heo, J. Lee, C. Chakrabarty, D. Paek, K. 2002 Growth responses of marigold and salvia bedding plants as affected by monochromic or mixture radiation provided by a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Plant Growth

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Liu XiaoYing, Guo ShiRong, Xu ZhiGang, Jiao XueLei and Takafumi Tezuka

, G.D. Kagie, H.R. Wheeler, R.M. Sager, J.C. 2001 Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation HortScience 36 380 383 Zancana, S. Sugliaa, I. Roccab, N.L. Ghisia, R. 2008 Effects

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Gary W. Stutte

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are solid-state semiconductor devices that produce narrow spectrum light when voltage is applied. The use of LEDs in photobiology research was reported in the 1980s and the concept of using LEDs for plant lighting was

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Shih-Wei Kong, Hsin-Ying Chung, Ming-Yi Chang and Wei Fang

low absorptivity coefficient in the absorption spectra of purified chlorophylls ( Sun et al., 1998 ). Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow production of light that emit only the wavelengths of light corresponding to the absorption peaks of plant

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Arend-Jan Both, Bruce Bugbee, Chieri Kubota, Roberto G. Lopez, Cary Mitchell, Erik S. Runkle and Claude Wallace

. Example of the proposed product label for a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp specifically designed for plant growth applications. PSS is the phytochrome photostationary state, using values from Sager et al. (1988) , which is a dimensionless ratio indicated

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Zhong-Hua Bian, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang and Chungui Lu

sources and the plant canopies. Table 1. The spectra data and photoperiod or light duration of white (W) light-emitting diode (LED) light control (W-CK), red (R) and blue (B) LED light control [RB-CK (R:B = 4:1)], continuous light (CL) by W LED (W-CL), CL