transplants per unit growing area and the quality of the individual transplants. In this study, we focused on the interaction of plant density with the proportion of FR light and the effects of this interaction on stem elongation due to light competition and
Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Mizuki Tsuchida
Martin M. Williams II, Rick A. Boydston, and Adam S. Davis
Research in dent corn has found significant variation in crop/weed competition for light among hybrids. However, little has been published on the extent of variation in sweet corn competitive ability. Field studies were conducted under weed-free conditions to quantify canopy development and light environment among three sweet corn hybrids and to determine associations among canopy characteristics to crop yield. An early-season hybrid (Spirit) and two midseason hybrids (WHT2801 and GH2547) were grown at experimental sites located near Urbana, Ill., and Prosser, Wash., in 2004 and 2005. Maximum leaf area index (LAI) and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was typically highest for GH2547 and lowest for Spirit. Most differences in vertical LAI among hybrids was observed above 60 and 150 cm in Illinois and Washington, respectively, with WHT2801 and GH2547 having leaf area distributed higher in the canopy than Spirit. Both number and mass of marketable ears were positively correlated with maximum relative growth rate (correlation coefficients 0.60–0.81), leaf area duration (0.68–0.79), total LAI (0.56–0.74) at R1, and intercepted PAR (0.74–0.83) at R1. Differences in canopy properties and interception of solar radiation among Spirit, WHT2801, and GH2547 lead us to hypothesize that variation in weed-suppressive ability exists among hybrids. Future testing of this hypothesis will provide knowledge of interactions specific to sweet corn useful for developing improved weed management systems.
Silvana Nicola and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Cell size and media density can modify plant quality of greenhouse grown transplants through variation in light competition among plants, water and nutrient retention and root growth volumes required to fill the cells Thus, `South Bay' lettuce (Lactuga sativa L.) seedlings were grown in the greenhouse during different seasons to investigate the effect of different cell size and media packing density on transplant quality and yield for lettuce grown on sand and muck soils at different latitudes. Four Speedling flat cell sizes (882, 392, 242, 124 cells/flat) and two media packing densities (unpacked and packed - 1.5 times in weight) were tested in all the trials. Few seedling data parameters had an interaction between cell size and media density at transplanting. The larger cell size (242, 124 cells/flat) and greater media density led to increase leaf area, leaf length, shoot and total dry weight, RGR and LWR Conversely, RWR and the root:shoot ratio had the opposite trend, reaching the greater values with smaller cell size and less media density. High root growth can improve the pulling of the plants from the tray at transplanting and quicker establishment in the field. The treatments did not affect yield of plants grown on organic soil. When plants were grown on sandy soil head weights were greater from plants grown in 392, 242, or 124 cells/flat compared to 882 cells/flat.
Fumiomi Takeda and Ann K. Hummell
A new trellis system called the “rotatable cross-arm” (RCA) trellis was developed to ease mechanical fruit harvesting of eastern thornless blackberries. The rotation of the cross-arm following bloom 1) positions all the fruit to one side of the trellis in a plane underneath the cross-arm and 2) permits primocanes to be trained to side without the fruit. To maintain productivity, the number of lateral shoots that arise from primocanes must be maximized. In this study, we examined the growth and development of individual primocanes within plants and the number of lateral canes that developed on them to decide which canes should be retained during the growing season. In `Chester Thornless' blackberry, primocanes trained early in the season produced more laterals per cane, had higher percentage of buds forming laterals, and were much larger in diameter than primocanes trained later in the season. Field observations suggested high sink strength and less light competition probably contributed to the increased productivity of early canes. These results indicated that the canes that become trainable early in the season must be retained for the success of the RCA trellis. Conversely, the primocanes that become trainable later in the season do not develop sufficiently and should be removed.
Marc van Iersel
Salvia splendens `Top burgundy' was grown in pots of different sizes (5, 50, 150, and 450 mL) to assess the effect of rooting volume on the growth and development of salvia. Seeds were planted in a peat-lite growing medium and plants grown in a greenhouse during the winter and spring of 1996. Plants were spaced far enough apart to minimize mutual shading and interplant light competition. Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and shoot and root dry mass and leaf area were measured. Relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate were calculated from these data. Differences in plant size became evident at 25 days after seeding. A small pot size (5 mL) decreased root and shoot dry mass, RGR, and NAR, while increasing the root:shoot ratio. Differences between the pot sizes became more apparent during the course of the experiment. The observation that root: shoot ratio decreased with increasing pot volume suggests that the decreased plant size in smaller pots was not the direct effect of reduced root size. Growth most likely was limited by the ability of the roots to supply the shoots with sufficient water and/or nutrients. Pot volume did not only affect the growth, but also the development of the plants. Salvia flowered faster in bigger pots (about 50 days after seeding in 450-mL pots), while the plants in 5-mL cells did not flower during the 9-week period of the experiment.
H.F. Harrison, J. K. Peterson, and M. Snook
These studies were initiated to investigate severe growth inhibition observed when some vegetable crops were infested with corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.). Interference by a natural population of the weed reduced the shoot weights of English pea (Pisum sativum L.) and collard (Brassica oleracea L.) by 93% and 72%, respectively. In a greenhouse experiment where light competition by corn spurry was prevented, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) shoot weights were reduced by corn spurry, but pea weights were not different from the controls. Homogenized corn spurry shoot tissue incorporated into a greenhouse potting medium inhibited the growth of both species, and a concentration effect was observed. Sequential hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and 50% aqueous methanol extracts of corn spurry root and shoot tissue were tested for inhibitory activity using millet seed germination and broccoli seedling growth bioassays. Dichloromethane, methanol, and aqueous methanol shoot extracts were inhibitory to broccoli; whereas all shoot extracts inhibited millet germination. Shoot extracts were more inhibitory than root extracts. Further fractionation of the inhibitors using a combination of reversed-phase sephadex LH-20 and silicic acid column chromatographic procedures showed that a major portion of the millet germination inhibition was due to sucrose esters (SE). Preliminary characterization of the esters showed that there were four different SE groups. The major groups contained either octanoic or dodecanoic acid along with butanoic and petanoic acids. All groups inhibited seed germination at concentrations as low as 20 ppm. This is the first report of the SE class of defense chemicals in plant species outside of the solanaceae family.
Nicholas D. Warren, Richard G. Smith, and Rebecca G. Sideman
plastic-covered beds and then incorporated into the soil by raking. In each experiment, the LM was planted the day after the broccoli seedlings were transplanted from the greenhouse to the field. To minimize the potential for light competition, the LM was
Bielinski M. Santos, Camille E. Esmel, Silvia Slamova, and Elizabeth A. Golden
cucurbit species tested in this study. Because there were no variations on strawberry canopy diameters, it is unlikely that there were significant changes in light competition throughout the cucurbit seasons. Air temperatures seemed to play a major role in
David A. Baumbauer, Colleen B. Schmidt, and Macdonald H. Burgess
spacing creates light competition, which is missing from studies that use a single plant per pot design. Materials and Methods Growth conditions. This study was completed in two Conviron PGR-15 (Winnipeg, Canada) growth chambers. Air temperature with a set
Yim F. So, Martin M. Williams II, and Jerald K. Pataky
.S. 2006 Canopy variation among three sweet corn hybrids and implications for light competition HortScience 41 1449 1454 Williams M.M. II Boydston, R.A.R.A. Davis, A.S. 2008a Crop competitive ability contributes to herbicide performance in sweet corn Weed