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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne Ingram

expressed as the net pounds or kilograms of CO 2 (or equivalence of other greenhouse gases such as CH 4 and N 2 O) released per functional unit of the product. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an approach that analyzes the flows associated with the whole

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Dewayne L. Ingram and R. Thomas Fernandez

quantifying the environmental impact of a product or service that has been accepted in the scientific community is life cycle assessment (LCA). The initial driving force for the development of such tools was the environmental regulations by the U

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

regulatory adherence ( Rankin et al., 2011 ). Measuring the sustainable nature of manufactured products is challenging, and live goods such as plants can be particularly perplexing; however, tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) have been used

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Dewayne L. Ingram

equivalent. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used to quantify the environmental impact of products or services. LCA is a systematic process accounting for environmental impacts of interrelated input components and processes of a product or practice

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

/well-being benefits associated with green industry products and services: A review J. Environ. Hort. 29 2 96 103 Hall, C.R. Ingram, D.L. 2014 Production costs of field-grown Cercis canadensis L. ‘Forest Pansy’ identified during life cycle assessment analysis

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Girija Page, Terry Kelly, Maria Minor and Ewen Cameron

source) is a better indicator of net contribution to GHG ( Kerckhoffs and Reid, 2007 ; OECD, 1999 ), earlier attempts of life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting of fruit production systems have not considered carbon balance as a result of

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

impacts ( Southern Nursery Association, 2013 ) while sustaining or increasing profits ( Hall, 2010 ). Life cycle assessment is a tool used to analyze the sustainable nature of production system components from cradle to grave or defined subsets of their

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

number of potential wholesale buyers along with increasing cost of production require growers to analyze every aspect of their production system to increase efficiencies ( Hall, 2010 ). Life cycle assessment is a research tool that has been applied to the

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Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

and product inputs for a 5-cm-caliper, field-grown, spade-dug redbud using international life cycle assessment standards and databases and the TRACT2.1 ( Bare, 2011 ) calculation method in a life cycle assessment software package, SimaPro (PRé North

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

need more information about the potential impact of specific production protocols to make informed decisions ( Ingram and Hall, 2015b ). Life cycle assessment is a tool that has been used to characterize the environmental impact of products from cradle