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Kirk D. Larson, Bruce Schaffer, and Frederick S. Davies

One-year-old potted `Peach' mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees were flooded at soil temperatures of 15, 22.5 or 30°C. Hypertrophied lenticels were observed after 5-6 days at 30°C and 6-8 days at 22.5°C, but were not observed after 30 days at 15°C. Cells of hypertrophied lenticels were more spherical and randomly arranged than those of nonhypertrophied lenticels, resulting in increased intercellular airspace. Lenticel hypertrophy also occurred on sterns of trees which were kept moist from intermittant misting, and on excised and intact stem sections. Therefore, formation of hypertrophied lenticels in mango occurs independently of root anaerobiosis and is dependent on floodwater temperature.

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Kirk D. Larson, Bruce Schaffer., and Frederick S. Davies

The influence of floodwater dissolved O2 content on stem lenticel hypertrophy and endogenous ethylene evolution from mango trees, and the influence of exogenous ethylene on mango stem lenticel hypertrophy was examined. In general, floodwater O2 contents of 1-7 ppm resulted in lenticel hypertrophy within about 6 days of flooding, whereas floodwater O2 contents of 15 ppm delayed hypertrophy until about day 9. After 14 days of flooding, there were more than twice the number of hypertrophied lenticels per tree with floodwater O2 contents of 1-7 ppm than with O2 contents of 15 ppm. Ethylene evolution from aerobic stem tissue increased 4- to 8-fold in trees exposed to floodwater with 1-2 ppm O2, increased 2-fold for trees exposed to 6-7 ppm O2, but remained constant with 15 ppm floodwater dissolved O2 content. During a 10-day flooding period, trees in floodwater with 15 ppm dissolved O2 content, and given exogenous ethylene, developed extensive stem lenticel hypertrophy, whereas no hypertrophy developed on stems of trees receiving no exogenous ethylene and maintained in floodwater with 15 ppm O2. These data suggest that ethylene plays a role in promoting stem lenticel hypertrophy in flooded mango trees.

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Kirk D. Larson, Bruce Schaffer, and Frederick S. Davies

The effect of flooding on container-grown `Tommy Atkins' mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees on two rootstock, and on container-grown seedling `Peach' mango trees, was investigated by evaluating vegetative growth, net gas exchange, and leaf water potential. In general, flooding simultaneously reduced net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) after 2 to 3 days. However, flooding did not affect leaf water potential, shoot extension growth, or shoot dry weight, but stem radial growth and root dry weight were reduced, resulting in larger shoot: root ratios for flooded trees. Mortality of flooded trees ranged from 0% to 45% and was not related to-rootstock scion combination. Hypertrophied lenticels were observed on trees that survived flooding but not on trees that died. The reductions in gas exchange, vegetative growth, and the variable tree mortality indicate that mango is not highly flood-tolerant but appears to possess certain adaptations to flooded soil conditions.