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Open access

V. E. Wilson and A. G. Law


Five selected lines of lentils (Lens esculenta Moench.) were used to determine percentages of natural crossing. First generation seed was classified into S1 and F1 groups after recessive fluorescent yellow cotyledonous maternal flowers were crossed naturally with pollen for dominant red cotyledonous flowers. Natural pollination between lines ranged from 0.01 to 0.08%. No F1 seed was produced on plants inside of wire screened cages although the cages included honeybees, air-borne pollen and maternal and paternal plants having alleles for yellow and red cotyledons, respectively. This indicates that neither honeybees nor air-borne pollen are major factors in natural cross pollinations. Seed yields from caged plants indicate that lentils are highly self-pollinated and need no agent to assist self-pollination.

Open access

Chia Ting Han, Yu Sung, and Ming-Tung Hsueh

+ Vaseline ) Identification of initial water entry sites. Seeds harvested at NCHU with 12% MC were used (Seed Lot 2). Seeds were covered with a layer of Vaseline at the micropyle, lens, or both sites (micropyle + lens) and germinated at 30 °C in a

Free access

James McConnell

Numerous shooting and post-production techniques can be used to improve the quality of images used in horticultural publications. Certain lenses, lens attachments, and camera accessories are useful for enabling greater success in photographing plants. Small diffusers and reflectors allow the shooting of close-ups in the field, even when the sun is directly overhead. Shift lenses can be used to photograph trees at a closer distance without the extreme distortion of wide focal length lenses. Stitching of multiple images to produce panoramic shots can produce images with increased resolution, less distortion, and without the need for a wide-angle lens. Experiences with digital asset management management and post-production workflows are also presented.

Full access

Jason Ernest Elvin Dampier, Richard W. Harper, Ashley McElhinney, and Eric Biltonen

Harper, 2009 ), especially when viewed through the lens of consumer preference ( Dampier et al., 2015 ). However, there is a dearth of studies comparing economic benefits against the costs of establishment and of insect control required to maintain

Free access

Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry

, 1990 ). Initially, the injured tissue is firm and moist, but after prolonged storage, they become spongy and dry developing cavities or lens-shaped voids ( Plagge, 1929 ; Snowdon, 1990 ). ‘Empire’ apple develops both internal and external injuries and

Free access

Richard M. Hannan, Charles J. Simon, and Raymond L. Clark

The Horticulture Program at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station is responsible for the maintenance and distribution of germplasm collections of ten crop genera. These ten genera include over 28,000 accessions of 267 species of germplasm with either food or ornamental potential. The largest collection is beans (Phaseolus, > 11,500 accessions) which includes 32 species. Large collections of the cool season food legumes include Cicer, Pisum and Lens. Smaller legume collections include Lupinus, Lathyrus, Trigonella and Vicia. Although there are fewer than 3300 accessions within these four genera, there are 134 species represented. Although smaller in number of accessions, the Allium and Lactuca collections are extensively utilized for food and ornamental development programs. Associated with the curation and seed maintenance of these crops is a seed-borne virus eradication program, the development of core collections, and expansion of the evaluation data and other documentation into the Germplasm Resources Information Network.

Free access

S. Brauner, R.L. Murphy, J.G. Walling, J. Przyborowski, and N.F. Weeden

DNA primers for 37 genes have been developed in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Two-thirds of these primers also amplify orthologous sequences in lentil (Lens culinaris). The primers were designed to be complementary to highly conserved sequences in exons of known genes. In addition, most of the priming sequences were selected to be 1000 to 3000 bp distant on the genomic DNA and to amplify a fragment that contained at least one intron. Segregating sequence polymorphism in mapping populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from wide crosses in Pisum was observed by restriction of the amplified fragment with endonucleases recognizing four-base restriction sites. Successful mapping of 36 of these genes in pea demonstrated the utility of these primers for mapping, and it appears likely that the primers should have general utility for comparative mapping in legumes.

Free access

Charles J. Simon and Richard M. Hannan

Core subsets have been selected for the USDA chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens culinaris), and pea (Pisum sativum) germplasm collections. These subsets are specifically intended to increase the efficiency of the utilization of the entire collections of these taxa. The cores consist of 13% of the 3873 chickpeas, 12% of the 2390 lentils, and 17.5% of the 2886 pea accessions. They were selected by a proportional logarithmic model, and also contain additional accessions based upon documented concentrations of diversity. Each core has been screened for disease reactions, and results suggest that the cores can effectively direct germplasm users toward portions of the entire collections that contain resistant germplasm. These cores have also been useful for those interested in assessing the adaptation potential of these crops in new environments, because the entire range of adaptation is represented. Although cores may not always enhance access to germplasm with unique or extremely rare characteristics, the legume cores have been very useful for directing users toward desirable germplasm from defined geographic areas, and assisting users at the preliminary stages of germplasm evaluation.

Free access

Michael Dana, Ricky Kemery, Rosie Lerner, Clark Throssell, Philip Carpenter, Michael Kerper, and Melody Putnam

Damage caused by misapplication of herbicides in landscape management or drift from agricultural fields on to nearby landscape plantings is often difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may vary with herbicide, species that is damaged, and other factors. To address this need, a photo CD-ROM has been developed to help plant damage diagnosticians determine if damage has been caused by herbicides. Fourteen herbicides or herbicide combinations commonly used in turfgrass, landscape, or field crop production applications were applied to 21 taxa of landscape trees, shrubs, groundcovers, or herbaceous perennials. More than 800 photographic transparencies of damage symptoms (representing all 21 taxa and 12 herbicides) were taken, and 457 were selected for storage in the digitized photo CD format for rapid retrieval. In all cases, as damage symptoms were observed, they were photographically recorded using a Nikon FM camera with a 55-mm micro-NIKKOR lens and Fujichrome Velvia transparency film under ambient, sunlit conditions. Species and plant taxa lists are displayed and the CD-ROM is demonstrated.

Free access

Steven C. Wiest

Digitized photographic images of turf plots composed of bermudagrass, buffalo grass, tall fescue, and zoysiagrass were taken at a height of about 150 cm with a 28-mm lens. Fast Fourier transforms of these images were performed, and a radial plot of the power spectrum was obtained from each image. Hurst plots (log frequency vs. log intensity) were used to subtract “background” from the power spectra, so peaks would be more evident. The peak of the power spectrum occurs at the average spacing between leaves (more precisely, between areas of the canopy that reflects a significant amount of light) and defines the characteristic dimension. Zoysiagrass had the lowest characteristic dimension, while tall fescue had the highest. The width of the power spectrum is indicative of the variability of the characteristic dimension within the canopy. The minimum characteristic dimension (occurring at the highest frequency) was less than 1.7 cm, whereas all the other species had about the same minimum characteristic dimension of ≈1.9 cm. The maximum characteristic dimension was greatest for fescue (6.9 cm), followed by buffalo grass (3.8 cm), bermudagrass (3.3 cm), and zoysiagrass (2.8 cm). These results indicate that the characteristic dimension can be a useful tool for discriminating between turfgrass species in digitized images.