Lemon is a highly acidic citrus fruit as a result of its high citric acid content (≈5%). As a result of its high level of vitamin C, it is used as an antioxidant to prevent browning in food and was used by the British Navy as an antiscurvy
Pinchas Spiegel-Roy, Aliza Vardi, Yosef Yaniv, Luba Fanberstein, Avraham Elhanati and Nir Carmi
Lina Mayuoni and Ron Porat
‘Villa franca’ lemons are visually similar to ‘Eureka’, which is the most important cultivated lemon variety worldwide; they have a smooth but thick rind, medium-large fruit, and an ovate-oblong shape ( Ladaniya, 2008 ; Sinclair, 1984 ). Lemons set
Steven J.R. Underhill, Richard L. McLauchlan and Irving L. Eaks
In accordance with the currently approved Australian citrus disinfestation protocol for export to Japan, degreened `Eureka' lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] were cold-stored for 2 weeks at 1C. Following cold treatment, fruit were stored at 5C for 3 weeks, then transferred to 20C for an additional week to simulate transportation and handling. Fruit harvested early in the season were more susceptible to chilling injury than fruit harvested later, with 62% having lesions >1 cm2 after 2 weeks at 1C. Most of the chilling injury occurred after subsequent storage (at 5C) rather than immediately after the 1C treatment. Injury was different from surface pitting or oleocellosis, manifesting as large uniform surface lesions 2 to 3 cm in diameter that rapidly discolored following storage at 20C. Although the oil glands were flattened, the collenchyma layer immediately above the oil gland remained intact. Cellular discoloration was localized around the oil gland, possibly indicating a lateral release of oil gland contents. Nondegreened late-season fruit developed substantially lower levels of chilling injury.
Zenaida Viloria and Jude W. Grosser
This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and approved for publication as Journal Series no. R-09951. The authors thank Dr. Glenn Wright (Univ. of Arizona) for assistance with lemon crosses conducted in Arizona, and
Guillermo P. Bernet, Pedro F. Mestre, José A. Pina and María J. Asíns
Some lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.] cultivars present compatibility problems with commonly used citrus rootstocks. Therefore, assessing trueness-to-type of lemon mother trees is needed by growers. Morphological differentiation of lemon cultivars is not precise because they present high phenotypic plasticity. The objective of this paper is to contrast the discriminatory ability of several molecular marker systems for lemon. Three marker types were used: randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP). The molecular variability found in C. limon is larger than that reported for C. clementina, another vegetatively propagated citrus species. This difference in variability content might be explained by differences in the distribution and age of both cultures. Similar to clementines, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers using primers anchored in copya-like retrotransposons resulted in a higher rate of polymorphisms (36.4%) than did primers of random sequence (27.3%) or those anchored at simple sequence repeats (0%), indicating a higher molecular variability at the locations where these retrotransposons inserted. Primers anchored in gypsy-like retroelements did not yield polymorphisms. Lemon cultivars from important groups such as `Eureka', `Fino', and `Verna' could be distinguished using all polymorphisms.
Mirko Siragusa, Fabio De Pasquale, Loredana Abbate, Letizia Martorana and Nicasio Tusa
Lemon is an economically important crop widely grown in southern Italy and especially in Sicily, the first Italian region for lemon production ( Cottone et al., 1996 ; Forte, 1999 ). While in the other principal producing countries one or few
Vicente Gimeno, James P. Syvertsen, Inma Simon, Vicente Martinez, Jose M. Camara-Zapata, Manuel Nieves and Francisco Garcia-Sanchez
Spain is the second highest lemon fruit-producing country in the world and the greatest exporter. Approximately 80% of the Spanish lemon production is located in the arid southeast where drought and salinity stress are common. However, very heavy
Mohammed El-Sayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir and Salah El-Hendawy
continuation of that research, the objective of the present study was to evaluate pure SGFW and different SGFW-based substrates as alternatives to coir and vermiculite for seed germination and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil. Materials and methods
display the power of the Persian ruler and it slowly penetrated into the Jewish religion and symbolic world; (2) the citron was common in important gardens in antiquity and was considered an elite product rather than a cash crop. Lemon ( C. limon ) Until
L.G. Houck and J.F. Jenner
Hot water immersion of citrus fruit is a potential postharvest quarantine treatment for insect disinfestation. Little is known about fruit injury in the temp. ranges/exposure times required to control surface insects. We immersed lemons in water at 25, 50, 52.5 or 55C for 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Fruits were held overnight at 20, 25 or 30C before hot water immersion. Fruits were stored at 10C for 4 wk after treatment. We compared (1) fresh-picked late-season (July-Aug.) coastal “silver” maturity lemons with (2) fresh-picked ripe but green-colored early/mid-season (Oct.) desert lemons and (3) similar desert lemons commercially degreened 7 days with ethylene to attain desirable yellow color prior to heat treatment. Heat injury symptoms were small-large light-dark brown necrotic lesions or discoloration which developed on peel surface within 2-3 wk after treatment. Order of sensitivity to heat was: most sensitive = coastal silver (≥ 90% of fruit injured at 55C/10 min) > degreened desert > green (≥ 34% of fruit injured at 55C/10 min) desert lemons. Up to 50C/5 min could be used on coastal and 52.5C/5 min on desert lemons without appreciable injury. There were no differences between fruit cured overnight at 20, 25 or 30C before heat treatments.