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Ji Tian, Zhen-yun Han, Li-ru Zhang, Ting-Ting Song, Jie Zhang, Jin-Yan Li, and Yuncong Yao

in Malus crabapple ( Fig. 1 ), which accumulates high levels of anthocyanins in its leaves and flowers ( Deluc, 2006 ; Henry-Kirk et al., 2012 ; Schaart et al., 2013 ). Indeed, crabapple leaves are used as a raw material for the extraction of

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Jinmin Fu and Peter H. Dernoeden

creeping bentgrass grown in a greenhouse. They found that fructan levels in leaves were reduced in single- and double-cut creeping bentgrass compared with uncut plants by 52% and 45%, respectively. Glucose levels were reduced 31% in double-cut creeping

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Suping Zhou, Roger J. Sauvé, Zong Liu, Sasikiran Reddy, Sarabjit Bhatti, Simon D. Hucko, Yang Yong, Tara Fish, and Theodore W. Thannhauser

to result in an increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves and drought ( U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2008 ). Leaves function as the primary manufacturer of many metabolites used during plant growth. Both the integrity of the machinery

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Jinmin Fu and Peter H. Dernoeden

first sign of leaf wilt to replenish the root zone with water ( Fry and Huang, 2004 ). DI irrigation generally is recommended for maintaining cool-season grasses in summer ( Beard, 1973 ; Fry and Huang, 2004 ). Carbohydrate metabolism in leaves and

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Vahid Rahimi Eichi, Stephen D. Tyerman, and Michelle G. Wirthensohn

al., 2009 ), probably because water and CO 2 transfer through a shared pathway in some parts in leaves. Both water vapor and CO 2 cross the aerial sub-stomatal cavity through the stomata ( Flexas et al., 2012 ). Although the directions of water

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Ed Etxeberria, Pedro Gonzalez, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Parvesh Sharma, and Pu Chun Ke

( Lara et al., 2011 ), and genes ( Christou et al., 1988 ; Torney et al., 2007 ); improve general growth profile ( Arora et al., 2012 ); and even modify the light reflective index of leaves to disorient insect predators (C. Brodersen, personal

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Suping Zhou, Roger Sauve, Tara Fish, and Theodore W. Thannhauser

of inositol and sugars in their leaves ( Sacher and Staples, 1985 ). mRNA profiling of NaCl-treated tomato plants has shown that salt stress can affect many different pathways ( Ouyang et al., 2007 ; Zhou et al., 2007 ). The objective of this study

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M. Gómez Tena, M.A. Pedreño, A. Ros Barceló, and M.A. Ferrer

The subcellular localization of a basic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) isoenzyme in crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaves was studied through subcellular fractionation and protoplast and vacuole isolation. This isoenzyme is mainly located in soluble fractions. Studies using protoplast isolation and vacuole purification indicated that the soluble basic peroxidase isoenzyme is found in the vacuolar sap, probably in equilibrium with the same isoenzyme attached to tonoplast membranes.

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Ben-Hong Wu, Shao-Hua Li, Marta Nosarzewski, and Douglas D. Archbold

growth ( Oliveira and Priestley, 1988 ). New photoassimilate gradually replaces the reserve carbohydrate supply once leaves begin maturing in the spring ( Corelli Grappadelli et al., 1994 ; McQueen et al., 2004 ; Oliveira and Priestley, 1988

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David M. Olszyk, Tamotsu Shiroyama, Jeffrey M. Novak, Keri B. Cantrell, Gilbert Sigua, Donald W. Watts, and Mark G. Johnson

lettuce leaves and carrot taproots. The biosolids were the source of the Zn; and while biochar by itself had no effect on Zn concentrations in nearly all crops, biochar by itself increased the Zn concentration in radish bulbs ( Gartler et al., 2013 ). When