Tree peony cultivars are usually classified according to flower characteristics (flower form and flower color) which are commonly affected by environmental influences and developmental levels. Judgment of flower forms may also depend on the observer. Precise and rapid cultivar identification methods are also required to manage cultivar collections as well as tree peony breeding programs. The objective of this paper is to analyze the discriminatory ability of leaf morphology and Intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker systems for tree peony cultivars. As a result, although there exist large variations of leaf morphology of tree peony cultivars, the morphological characteristics of biternately compound leaves 3, 4, and 5 from the base of a shoot at the middle part of a plant are relatively stable with smaller variations within cultivars (2.7% to 27.1%, 16.8% on average) and with larger differentiations among cultivars (72.9% to 97.3%, 83.2% on average). Statistical and principal components analyses indicate that 12 leaf morphological characteristics are valuable for cultivar classification. ISSR markers present a precisely discriminatory power in tree peony cultivar classification without environmental influences. The cultivars with multiple flower forms, which makes it difficult to make judgment by means of a flower-form-based classification system, have been significantly characterized using leaf morphology or ISSR markers.
Zhi-li Suo, Wen-ying Li, Juan Yao, Hui-jin Zhang, Zhi-ming Zhang, and Di-xuan Zhao
Hisayuki Kudo and Takeo Harada
1. Phenotypic changes seen in potato scions after grafting. Fig. 1. Leaf morphology. ( A ) Leaves that developed from lateral buds of potato scion grafted on Me tomato. Arrow indicates the scion/stock junction. ( B ) Comparison of
D. Michael Jackson, Howard F. Harrison, Robert L. Jarret, and Phillip A. Wadl
(longest dimension) to leaf width (L/W) ranged from 0.75 to 1.55 and averaged 1.00 ( Fig. 2 ). Approximately half (52.4%) of the accessions (383 PIs) had leaves wider than long and 47.6% (348 PIs) had leaves longer than wide. Several leaf morphology
Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak, and Mi Seon Kim
., 1997 ). Fig. 2. Leaf morphology of ‘Golden Ingot’ english ivy and polka dot plant 9 weeks after plants were placed under different indoor light intensities [photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF )]. PE leaves represent pretreatment expanded leaves and RE
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel, John T.A. Proctor, K. Helen Fisher, and J. Alan Sullivan
In order to gain an understanding of the capacity of severely shaded leaves to be productive in dense canopies, the effects of increased shading on morphology, dry-matter partitioning, and whole-plant net carbon exchange rate (NCER) were investigated on greenhouse-grown Vitis vinifera L. `Chardonnay' grapevines. Vines were subjected to whole-plant shading levels of 0%, 54%, 90%, and 99% of direct sun 3 weeks after potting. Data were collected 8 to 10 weeks after potting. Nonlinear regression was used to investigate the relationship of leaf morphological traits and organ dry weights to increased shading. Leaf size was maintained with increased shading to approximately the 90% shading level, while leaf fresh weight, volume, density, and thickness were immediately reduced with increased shading. Root dry weight was most affected by increased shading, and root to shoot ratio was reduced. When nonlinear regressions were produced for light response curves, light compensation point was reduced by approximately 49% by moderate shading, and 61% by severe shading. Shaded leaves approached the asymptote of the light response curve more quickly, and had reduced dark respiration rates, indicating that the morphological compensation responses by the vine allow shaded leaves to use available light more efficiently. However, the long-term ramifications of reduced root growth in the current year on vines with shaded leaves may be significant.
Chris A. Martin, William P. Sharp, John M. Ruter, and Richard L. Garcia
Paclobutrazol at 0 and 750 μl·liter–1 was sprayed on shoots of Feijoa sellowiana O. Berg. and Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. grown under similar production regimes in central Arizona (subtropical desert) and southern Georgia (humid temperate). Five months after application, Feijoa and Ligustrum leaves were generally smaller and thicker in Arizona than in Georgia. Arizona leaves were thicker than those in Georgia because of more layers of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. Compared with leaves from control plants, paclobutrazol 1) increased Feijoa leaf area in Georgia, 2) decreased Ligustrum leaf area at both locations by ≈50%, and 3) decreased leaf thickness of both species in Arizona. Arizona Feijoa leaves had trichomes on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, whereas Georgia Feijoa leaves had trichomes on abaxial surfaces only. Paclobutrazol increased trichome frequency on adaxial surfaces of Arizona Feijoa leaves. Stomatal frequency of Georgia Feijoa leaves was about doubled by paclobutrazol. Reflectance of near-infrared radiation by paclobutrazol-treated Feijoa leaves was 1.4 times higher than that of nontreated leaves in Georgia and 1.9 times in Arizona. Near-infrared reflectance by Georgia Ligustrum leaves was 1.3 times higher than by Arizona Ligustrum leaves and was not affected by paclobutrazol. Leaf reflectance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by Arizona Feijoa was higher than by Georgia Feijoa. Paclobutrazol increased PAR reflectance by Arizona Feijoa leaves. In contrast, Georgia Feijoa PAR reflectance was decreased by paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol or location did not affect Ligustrum PAR reflectance. Chemical name used: (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).
Kelly M. Stanton, Sally S. Weeks, Michael N. Dana, and Michael V. Mickelbart
Two native shrubs, Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) and Spiraea tomentosa (hardhack or steeplebush), have potential as landscape plants, but little is known about light requirements for these species. The performance of plants from four geographical seed sources of each species was evaluated in the field under six different light treatments: full sun; morning full sun; afternoon full sun; and 40%, 60%, and 80% shade. Provenance differences did exist for height, flowering, and leaf greenness. Growth, flowering, and canopy density were greater in full sun and 40% shade and least in 80% shade. Both species responded to shade with increased individual leaf area and higher specific leaf area. Relative leaf greenness decreased with shade in S. tomentosa but did not change in S. alba. Plants grown in morning or afternoon shade were shorter and smaller and had fewer inflorescences than did the full-sun plants. These species can survive in deep shade, but based on growth and appearance, they are best suited to full sun or light shade in the landscape.
G. Yelenosky, D. Hutchison, and H. Barrett
Ten-month-old seedlings, grown from seed extracted from 22 individual pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] × trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] citrus hybrid trees that survived -15C freezes near Monticello, Fla., were cold-acclimated in controlled-environment rooms and freeze-tested at -6.7C for 4 h. Freeze damage to open-pollinated progeny was ranked by the number of uninjured seedlings and percentage of leaves killed and wood dieback. Morphological segregation was not associated with differences in freeze survival, and the dominant trifoliate gene was readily evident. Progeny from one tree, identified as 98-71, are considered the most likely candidates for further study in developing cold-hardy citrus trees.
Xiaotao Ding, Liyao Yu, Yuping Jiang, Shaojun Yang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, and Danfeng Huang
Changes in leaf length, width, area, weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, and photosynthetic variables with different leaf positions were investigated in fruit cucumber. Plants were grown on rockwool slabs in an environmentally controlled greenhouse and irrigated by drip fertigation. Leaf measurements were conducted from the first to the 15th leaf (the oldest to the youngest). The results showed that fresh weight per unit leaf area decreased from the second to the 15th leaf. Changes in cucumber leaf length, width, and area followed quadratic models from the first to the 15th leaf. The quadratic models of leaf length, width, and area fit the measurements well, with R 2 values of 0.925, 0.951, and 0.955, respectively. The leaf chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid contents increased from the oldest leaf (first leaf) to the youngest leaf and decreased after reaching the highest values. Changes in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) also followed the quadratic model from the first to the 15th leaf, with R 2 values of 0.975. The leaf transpiration rate (Tr) increased from the first to the 14th leaf. Our results revealed patterns in leaf growth and photosynthetic changes at different leaf positions in fruit cucumber and improved our understanding of the growth and development of fruit cucumber in the greenhouse production system.
Coye A. Balok and Rolston St. Hilaire
Identification of tree taxa that can thrive on reduced moisture regimes mandated by xeriscape programs of the southwest United States could be facilitated if responses to drought of those taxa are determined. Leaf water relations, plant development, and cuticular wax content of seven taxa maintained as well-irrigated controls or exposed to drought and irrigated based on evapotranspiration were studied. Leaf water potential of drought-stressed Fraxinus velutina Torr. (Arizona ash), Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (golden rain tree), Quercus macrocarpa Michx. (bur oak), and Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. (chinkapin oak) were lower at predawn than the controls. Drought-stressed plants of F. velutina, K. paniculata, and Quercus lobata Née (California white oak) had more negative midday water potential than the control plants. Drought reduced stomatal conductance to as little as 17%, 23%, and 45% of controls in F. velutina, K. paniculata, and Q. macrocarpa, respectively. Drought-stressed plants of F. velutina, K. paniculata, Q. macrocarpa, and Q. muehlenbergii had reduced transpiration rates. Fraxinus velutina had both the highest net assimilation rate (NAR) and relative growth rate (RGR) regardless of irrigation treatment. Mean specific leaf weight (dry weight (DW) of a 1-cm2 leaf disc divided by the weight), trichome density, stomatal density, leaf thickness, and cuticular wax content varied among species but not between irrigation treatments. Leaves of Q. buckleyi Buckl. (Texas red oak) had one of the highest stomatal densities, and also had leaves which were among the waxiest, most dense, and thickest. Abaxial leaf surfaces of F. velutina were the most pubescent. Across species, drought led to lower ratios of leaf surface area to root DW, and leaf DW to root DW. Quercus buckleyi plants subjected to drought had the highest root to shoot DW ratio (3.1). The low relative growth rate of Q. buckleyi might limit widespread landscape use. However, Q. buckleyi may merit increased use in landscapes on a reduced moisture budget because of foliar traits, carbon allocation patterns, and the relative lack of impact of drought on plant tissue water relations.