fertilization regime. The important role of crop load in affecting leaf and fruit N concentrations has been previously identified by Hansen (1980) . Furthermore, our study indicated high N rate, N fertigation 4 to 12 wafb as well as cultivar (e.g., ‘Silken
Gerry Henry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen and Linda Herbert
Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Sung-hee Guak and Tom Forge
Mature, fruiting ‘Ambrosia’/‘M.9’ apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees were subjected over three growing seasons to a split-plot experimental design involving four irrigation main plot treatments and three subplot crop load treatments with six replicates. This semiarid production region is traditionally irrigated 01 May to 01 Oct. during which time an average of ≈ 15 cm of precipitation occurs. Irrigation treatments were applied through 2 × 4 L⋅h−1 emitters per tree and included I1: daily application of 100% evapotranspiration (ET); or I2: 50% daily ET; or I3: 50% ET applied to one side; and I4: 50%, 25%, or 18% ET-application, applied every second day, 2007–09, respectively. Crop load treatments were imposed annually ≈4 to 5 weeks after full bloom to create low (2.5, 3, and 3.75 fruits/cm2 trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), medium (4.5, 6, and 7.5 fruits/cm2 TCSA), and high crop loads (9, 12, and 15 fruits/cm2 TCSA), 2007–09, respectively. Leaf and fruit nutrient concentration was affected more by crop load than by any deficit irrigation strategy. Increased crop load increased concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), and fruit Ca in 2 of 3 years and consistently decreased concentrations of leaf and fruit phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) and, in 2 of 3 years, fruit boron (B). Reductions in seasonal water applications (as with I4) reduced leaf P in 2 of 3 years. But, when significant, (usually only 1 of 3 year) increased fruit Ca, magnesium (Mg), P, K, and B concentrations. Crop load also had a dominant effect on fruit nutrient removal rates expressed as kilograms per hectare. High crop load increased removal of all measured nutrients in most years. In contrast, imposition of deficit irrigation strategies often (2 of 3 years) reduced fruit P, Mg, and B removal rates but had little effect on N, Ca, and K. Cumulative evidence suggests that deficit irrigation applied to N, P, K, and B fertigated high density ‘Ambrosia’ apple orchards in combination with crop load reduction to maintain fruit size should usually not create additional nutrient problems. However, low fruit Ca concentrations may occur if the crop is very low. Fertigation of 20 g K/tree/year was insufficient for older trees because inadequate K occurred in all treatments by the third year.
G.H. Neilsen, D. Neilsen, L.C. Herbert and E.J. Hogue
A split-plot experimental design was imposed in the year of planting and maintained for the first five growing seasons in a high density apple orchard on M.9 rootstock planted at 1.5 m (within row) × 4 m (between row) in a loamy sand soil susceptible to K deficiency when drip-irrigated. Four N-K fertigation treatments involving low (N1) and high (N2) rates of N combined with 0 (K0) or 15 g K/tree per year (K1) were applied in five replicated and randomized main plot units. Subplots consisted of three-tree plots of each of the apple cultivars Gala, Fuji, Fiesta and Spartan. Soil solution monitoring indicated the maintenance of distinctly different soil solution N and K concentrations in the respective N-K treatments during the study. The most important plant response was prevention of the development of K deficiency by the K1-fertigation treatment. Fertigation of 15 g K/tree generally increased leaf K, fruit K and Mg concentrations, fruit size and yield and fruit titratable acidity and red coloration at harvest for all cultivars. K fertigation also decreased leaf Mg and B concentrations, fruit N, P and Ca concentration and fruit firmness. In addition to leaf K concentrations <1%, K deficiency was associated with fruit K concentrations <100 mg/100 g fresh weight and soil solution K concentration <5 mg·L-1. Increasing the rate of fertigated N when growth was constrained by K deficiency increased leaf N and Mn and decreased leaf P and B, but had no effect on tree vigor or fruit production and quality.
Moreno Toselli, Costanza Zavalloni, Bruno Marangoni and James A. Flore
15Nitrogen-ammonium nitrate was applied to four `Mutsu' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees 40 days before harvest of 1996 (summer supplied nitrogen, SUN) and four others at full bloom in 1997 (spring supplied nitrogen, SPN) to evaluate the effect of application timing on N partitioning in mature trees. At leaf fall the largest amount of SUN was partitioned to roots and 2- to 4-year-old wood; the largest amount of SPN was partitioned to fruit and leaves and only a small amount detected in the roots. SUN did not increase N concentration in fruit or modify fruit firmness and soluble solids concentration, although it contributed to building up N reserves in the perennial woody organs. In 1997, as a result of the different timings of N supply, two sources of labeled N were distinguished and monitored in the vegetative organs: 1) the remobilized N, taken up in summer of 1996, stored in winter and then translocated to the growing tissues; 2) the newly absorbed N, taken up and moved to the canopy after the 1997 spring supply. Both fractions of remobilized and newly uptaken labeled N contributed to leaf and fruit N. Remobilized 15N was provided principally by roots which, from August to leaf fall, decreased their percentage of 15N by ≈18%, replacing the labeled with unlabeled N to maintain a constant concentration of total N.
Habib Khemira, T. L. Righetti, David Sugar and A. N. Azarenko
Current N fertilization practices, where high spring applications are utilized, may lead to excessive vegetative growth. However, high rates may not be required to maximize fruit yield and quality. Therefore, alternative strategies to minimize shoot growth while still providing the N needs of the tree were investigated. Mature `Comice' and `Bosc' pear trees were given one of the following treatments: a spring soil (SS) application of NH4NO3 nitrate at 112.5 kg/ha rate, a similar application in the fall after harvest (FS), a fall foliar (FF) spray of a 7.5% urea solution after harvest (FF), or no N (Control). Trees that received a FF application had the same leaf and fruit N content as control trees, but they yielded more fruit The SS application gave more vigorous trees than FF application. Yield, however, was not different.
A 15N enriched urea solution was applied at harvest as either a foliar spray, soil application, or combination of both treatments to mature `Comice' trees. Flower buds from trees that previously received a foliar treatment had 37% of their N derived from the foliar N application. No labeled N was detected in buds from the soil treatment These results indicate that vegetative and reproductive N requirements of fruit trees may be managed separately.
Gerry Neilsen, Frank Kappel and Denise Neilsen
`Lapins' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees on Gisela 5 (Prunus cerasus × Prunus cansecens) rootstock were maintained for the first four growing seasons with eight different fertigation treatments. Treatments involved N application at low (42 mg·L-1), medium (84 mg·L-1), and high (168 mg·L-1) concentrations via sprinkler-fertigation of Ca(NO3)2 each year about 8 weeks after bloom. The medium N treatment was also applied with P fertigation in early spring or with K fertigation in June. Nitrogen was also broadcast in early spring at 75 kg·ha-1 or followed with medium N sprinkler-fertigated postharvest in August. As a final treatment the medium root zone N concentration was maintained for 8 weeks postbloom via drip fertigation. Throughout the study, irrigation was scheduled to meet evaporative demand based on an electronic atmometer. Drip fertigation, which wet a smaller portion of the orchard floor, considerably reduced per-tree water applications. Tree vigor and pruning weights were reduced for drip-fertigated as compared to sprinkler-fertigated trees although cumulative yield was not significantly different during the study. Fruit size, however, was smaller for this treatment when crop load was at a maximum at year 4. Future research is warranted to insure fruit size can be maintained for heavily cropping drip-fertigated trees. Leaf and fruit N increased linearly as N concentration of sprinkler-fertigating solution increased from low to high values. Optimum yield and highest fruit quality were associated with the medium N treatment. Sprinkler fertigation of P and K did not increase leaf and fruit concentration of either nutrient or meaningfully affect tree performance.
Ibrahim I. Tahir, Sven-Erik Svensson and David Hansson
standard mechanical cultivation technique showed that a sandwich system during the whole year (SSW) eliminated vegetative cover competition, increased soil respiration, improved leaf and fruit Ca content and resulted in moderate leaf and fruit N content and
Pradeep Kumar, Menahem Edelstein, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Emanuela Ferri and Giuseppe Colla
compared with control (0 µ m Cd). Nongrafted and self-grafted plants markedly had higher N in their roots, especially under control than the grafted plants (data not shown). Leaf and fruit N did not differ among grafting combinations ( Table 5 ). Root P
Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, David Granatstein, Lori Hoagland and John P. Reganold
the composition of the soil microbial community ( Laakso et al., 2000 ; Wardle et al., 2001 ). However, improvements in soil quality have not always translated into improved leaf and fruit N levels or greater yields. For example, legume and non
Bernadine C. Strik, Amanda Vance, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan
( Strik and Vance, 2015 ). In this study, we found no consistent relationship between the concentration of N in the fruit and leaves. In contrast, Ballinger and Kushman (1966) found that increased yield reduced leaf and fruit N concentration. These