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Ian Merwin and Warren C. Stiles

Eight vegetation management systems (VMS) were evaluated over four years in a newly planted apple site. VMS treatments included pre- and post-emergence herbicide strips, a close-mowed sodgrass, a growth-suppressed (maleic-hydrazide) sodgrass, a crownvetch “living mulch,” clean cultivation, and straw mulch. Soil moisture supply was highest under the straw mulch and lowest under crownvetch, and varied inversely with groundcover biomass. Leaf N was deficient in tress in both sodgrass VMS, and increased by the lequme “living mulch” only after four years. Leaf Cu was lowest, and appeared to limit tree growth in VMS with prolonged soil moisture deficits. No significant differences were observed in leaf transpiration over a broad range (10 to 700 kPa) of soil matric tension. Cumulative trunk crosssectional area was greatest in straw-mulched trees and least in sodgrass and crownvetch VMS. The optimal soil matric tension for nutrient uptake and tree growth appeared to be 175 to 200 kPa in this orchard. Increasing the width of glyphosate herbicide strips from 1.5 to 2.5 m in tree rows did not improve tree growth, nutritional status or fruit yield.

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Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Alan L. Wright, Brian J. Boman, Arnold W. Schumann, Fred G. Gmitter and Jude W. Grosser

(A) leaf transpiration (E) and (B) leaf vapor pressure deficit (VPD) after the first year of transplant under different coverings [enclosed screen houses and open-air (control)] and planting methods (in-ground and container-grown). The purpose of

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Rangjian Qiu, Zaiqiang Yang, Yuanshu Jing, Chunwei Liu, Xiaosan Luo and Zhenchang Wang

satisfactory performance for hot pepper production. However, there was a time lag for the LF effect on leaf transpiration and plant growth, also on ET, EC e , and yield [see our previous studies ( Qiu et al., 2017a , 2017b )], due to the gradual building up of

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Diana Carolina Núñez-López, Augusto Ramírez-Godoy and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

leaf transpiration, chlorophyll content, and yield components. Materials and Methods Growing conditions Three experiments were carried out at greenhouses of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (with

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Judson LeCompte, T. Casey Barickman and Bill B. Evans

%, to 100%, where shading was provided by black polypropylene fabric with different densities. Previous research also indicated increasing shade levels decreased net photosynthesis and g s , and increased leaf transpiration of bell pepper ( Díaz

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez

transpiration without reducing net photosynthesis. This reduced leaf transpiration was likely attributed to reduced evaporative demand and probably explains the increased soil water content and reduced plant water uptake under shaded conditions. The linear

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James P. Syvertsen, Juan C. Melgar and Francisco García-Sánchez

C ), and water use efficiency (WUE) of most crop plants can be increased when plants are grown in elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ), but at the same time, leaf transpiration ( E lf ) and plant water use usually are decreased ( Bowes, 1991 ; Chen and Lenz

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Min Wu and Chieri Kubota

the control at 0 m m of NaCl in the nutrient solution. The leaf transpiration rate decreased by about 27% and 60% for ‘Daniela’ and by 52% and 50% for ‘Moneymaker’ under 35 and 70 m m NaCl treatments, respectively, compared with the control. In our

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Giuseppe Cimò, Riccardo Lo Bianco, Pedro Gonzalez, Wije Bandaranayake, Edgardo Etxeberria and James P. Syvertsen

potential, and nutrients. Net gas exchange [CO 2 assimilation rate (ACO 2 ), leaf transpiration rate (E lf ), stomatal conductance ( g s ,), and water use efficiency (WUE)] were determined with a LI-COR portable photosynthesis system (LI-6400; LI-COR Inc

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J.C. Melgar, J. Dunlop, J.P. Syvertsen* and F. García-Sánchez

Physiological responses of olive cuttings of `Koroneiki' and `Picual' (Olea europaea L.) to zero or high salinity (NaCl 100 mmol·L-1) and to ambient CO2 (380 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO2 concentration were studied in sand culture in greenhouses. Growth parameters, net gas exchange of leaves and leaf chloride concentration were measured after two months of treatment. `Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth and net assimilation of CO2 (Ac) at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2 but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and Ac of `Picual' did not respond to elevated CO2 regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration were lower at elevated CO2 such that leaf water use efficiency increased at elevated CO2 in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. The saline treatment increased leaf chloride (Cl) concentration and reduced growth and net gas exchange responses in both cultivars. There was no difference in leaf Cl accumulation between the two varieties. At high salinity, elevated CO2 had little effect on leaf Cl implying that at least in `Koroneiki', Cl accumulation was not closely linked to water uptake.