as the slope of the A – C i curve when C i is equal to the CO 2 compensation point. The CO 2 compensation point was calculated as the internal CO 2 concentration at which A n was zero. Leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll, and related
Francesco Montesano and Marc W. van Iersel
Richard J. Heerema, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Marisa Y. Thompson, Joshua D. Sherman, Mary J. Comeau, and James L. Walworth
( r 2 = 0.26), and 28 Aug. 2014 ( r 2 = 0.34) measurement occasions. The solid vertical line represents the breakpoint leaf Zn tissue concentration below which leaf photosynthesis begins to decline. Dashed vertical lines represent the 95% confidence
Steven McArtney, John Palmer, Sue Davies, and Shona Seymour
The effect of liquid lime sulfur (LS) and fish oil (FO) application during bloom on leaf photosynthesis (Pn) and pollen tube growth in apple (Malus ×domestica) flowers were investigated in order to determine their mode of action as a bloom thinning agent. LS increased the percentage of flowers with fewer than 10 pollen tubes per flower to more than 64% compared to 5% or less in the control. Pollen tubes were completely absent from 27% to 48% of flowers following LS treatment compared with fewer than 4% of flowers having no pollen tubes on control trees. These data indicate that 30% to 50% of flowers that open on the day of LS application are unlikely to set a fruit due to the complete inhibition of embryo fertilization. Increasing the rate of LS from 0.5% to 4% increased the proportion of flowers with limited pollen tube number in a concentration dependent manner. LS suppressed the rate of light saturated Pn; successive LS sprays during the bloom period had an additive effect on suppression of Pn and fruit set. In one study the reduction in Pn was greatest 12 days after application of LS but Pn recovered by about 19 days after initial treatment. In a second study Pn of primary spur leaves had still not recovered when measured 57 days after the first of three applications. FO had no effect on the number of pollen tubes per flower, but reduced Pn and fruit set by about 10% and 20% respectively. An increase in the proportion of flowers with no pollen tubes, and therefore no embryo development, can account, at least in part, for the thinning response following application of LS to apples during bloom. It is likely that suppression of Pn contributes to the thinning response, although the importance of this mechanism will depend on perturbation of the total carbohydrate supply to developing fruit.
Richard J. Heerema, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Rolston St. Hilaire, Vince P. Gutschick, and Bethany Cook
would reach full saturation at 3.1% leaf N. Table 2. Probability summary from analysis of variance for leaf photosynthesis data by measurement date in 2009 and 2010. z Fig. 2. Photosynthetic rate of leaflets from fruiting and non-fruiting shoots on low
J.D. Caldwell, J.F. Hancock, and J.A. Flore
The commercial strawberry Frageria × ananassa and several clones of F. chiloensis and F. virginiana were preconditioned in growth chambers under the following conditions: 500 μmol m-7s-1 PAR and 20° day, 10° night or 30° day and 20° night. After at least 3 weeks of preconditioning at the two different temperature regimes, leaf photosynthetic rate (A) was determined for temperatures ranging from 10 to 35° in 2-3° increments with an open gas exchange system under laboratory conditions. The objective was to determine if F. virginiana and F. × ananassa can photosynthesize at higher temperatures than F. chiloensis, and if any of these would acclimate to higher temperatures. F. chiloensis did not acclimate to higher temperatures, and bad maximum A between 16 and 20°. F. virginiana did acclimate to higher temperatures, with maximum A for the low temp treatment between 18 and 24°, and for the high temp treatment between 24 and 30°. The commercial cultivars of `Earliglow' and `Redchief' acclimated to higher temperature and responded similar to F. virginiana.
Jens N. Wünsche, John W. Palmer, and Dennis H. Greer
Effect of crop load on tree growth, leaf characteristics, photosynthesis, and fruit quality of 5-year-old `Braeburn' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on Malling 26 (M.26) rootstock was examined during the 1994-95 growing season. Crop loads ranged from 0 to 57 kg/tree [0 to 1.6 kg fruit/cm2 trunk cross sectional area (TCA) or 0 to 8.7 fruit/cm2 TCA]. Fruit maturity as indicated by background color, starch/iodine score, and soluble solids was advanced significantly on low-cropping trees compared to high-cropping trees. Whole-canopy leaf area and percentage tree light interception increased linearly with a significant trend as crop load decreased. From midseason until fruit harvest, leaf photosynthesis decreased significantly on lighter cropping trees and similarly, a positive linear trend was found between whole-canopy gas exchange per unit area of leaf and crop load. Leaf starch concentration in midseason increased linearly as crop load decreased, providing some explanation for the increased down-regulation of photosynthesis on trees with lower crop loads. After fruit harvest, the previous crop loads had no effect on leaf photosynthesis and preharvest differences in whole-canopy gas exchange per unit area of leaf were less pronounced. At each measurement date, daily whole-canopy net carbon exchange and transpiration closely followed the diurnal pattern of incident photosynthetic photon flux. The photochemical yield and electron transport capacity depended on crop load. This was due mostly to reaction center closure before harvest and an increased nonphotochemical quenching after harvest.
M. Carmen González-Mas, M. José Llosa, Antonio Quijano, and M. Angeles Forner-Giner
Citrus crops in the Mediterranean region are often grown in high pH calcareous soils, which promote nutrient imbalances, especially iron deficiency. ‘Navelina’ trees grafted on eight different citrus rootstocks were assessed in terms of their relative tolerance to these soils. To do so, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured for 2 consecutive years in leaves without visible injury symptoms. Trees were grown on the rootstocks Carrizo citrange, hybrids of Cleopatra mandarin × Poncirus trifoliata no. 5 (F-A 5), 13 (F-A 13), and 16 (030116), Troyer citrange × common mandarin no. 18 (F-A 418), King mandarin × P. trifoliata no. 7 (F-A 517), 020324 (Troyer citrange × Cleopatra mandarin), and Volkamer lemon × P. trifoliata no. 64 (230164). g S and transpiration rate were clearly lower in leaves of shoots grafted on Carrizo citrange than in those on the other rootstocks assayed, but net photosynthetic flux did not differ. However, leaves of shoots on Carrizo citrange displayed a decline in their maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry [variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) ratio] and other chlorophyll parameters in the steady state such as photochemical quenching (qP) and the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII) as well as an increase in nonphotochemical quenching (qN). Other rootstocks such as 030116, F-A 517 and, especially, F-A 5 showed the highest ΦPSII and Fv/Fm values, whereas F-A 5 had the lowest qN in the steady state. The photosynthetic characteristics observed in leaves on Carrizo citrange showed them to be the least tolerant to these calcareous conditions, whereas photosynthesis of ‘Navelina’ trees budded on F-A 5 were the most tolerant.
Paolo Sabbatini and James Flore
Crop load (CL) is a critical regulator of production and quality on apple. It affects leaf photosynthetic rate and usually an increase is detected in leaves close to developing sinks. The objective of this work was to test if 13C discrimination during photosynthesis could be an indicator of carbon sink limitation. The natural plant carbon isotope composition (13C/12C ratio: d13C) is an indicator of water use efficiency and it is an effective tool to study environmental stresses in plants. Seven-year-old trees of Imperial Gala/Bud 9 (n=30), field-grown at the Clarksville Horticultural Research Station in Michigan, were hand-thinned to five levels of CL manipulating the leaf to fruit ratio (LFR: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) after June drop. Net photosynthetic rate (A) of leaves was monitored daily during the season and elevated rates were observed in low LFR. The A was inhibited in low CL trees (LFR 32 and 64) more in the afternoon (from 20% to 42% in relation to normal CL: LFR 16) than in the morning (from 5% to 20%), and stomatal conductance declined over the afternoon. Shoot and fruit growth were affected (fruit size –11/+11%, shoot length –13/+18% from normal CL; LFR 16). Variations of the stable carbon isotope composition of leaves show a significant reduction of 13C discrimination in low CL trees (–3.2%: d13C –25.82) and an increase of 13C discrimination (+2.7%: d13C –27.38) in relation to normal CL trees (LFR 15.63). The results were similar to those reported in 2004, which imply isotopic discrimination in relation to source limitation. This is the opposite of what you would expect under water stress conditions. Although trees were well-watered during the season, the effect of water stress on apple trees and its interaction with source limitation will be discussed.
Paolo Sabbatini and James A. Flore
The naturally occurring carbon isotope composition (or 13C: 12C ratio, expressed with the notation d13C) of plant tissue may be used as an indicator of water use efficiency during plant growth. d13C has been shown to be an effective tool to study physiological response of plant to environmental conditions, especially water stress. The objective of this work was to test if d13C could be an indicator of carbon limitations or a low source: sink ratio. Trees of `Imperial Gala'/Bud 9 (n = 12), 6-years-old, field grown at the Clarksville Horticultural Research Station (Clarksville, Miss.), were assessed with different crop load (LCL = Low Crop Load, 0.76 ± 0.44 fruit per trunk sectional area (TCA); NCL = Normal Crop Load, 7.25 ± 1.83 fruit/TCA; HCL = High Crop Load, 15.83 ± 1.76 fruit/TCA) and leaf: fruit ratio (LCL: 52.78 ± 8.55, NCL: 13.33 ± 3.06, HCL; 4.31 ± 0.68) immediately following June drop. Net photosynthetic rate of leaves were monitored during the season and elevated rates were observed in NCL and HCL and correlated with the fruiting process. Photosynthesis was inhibited in LCL more in the afternoon (from 20% to 42% in relation to NCL) than in the morning (from 5% to 20%) and this was positively correlated with crop sink strength. Variations of the stable carbon isotope composition of roots (fine and coarse), fruit, leaves, and current-year stems were examined. The d13C varied by tissue (fruit > shoot and leaf > root) and in relation to the level of crop load (d13C‰ in fruit: LCL –23.513 ± 0.248, NCL –24.891 ± 0.594; and HCL –24.935 ± 0.375). These results may have implications for analysis of isotopic signals in carbohydrate stress and fractionation steps will be discussed.
Juan Carlos Melgar, Arnold W. Schumann, and James P. Syvertsen
We determined if frequency of application of irrigation water plus fertilizer in solution (fertigation) could modify root and shoot growth along with growth per unit nitrogen (N) and water uptake of seedlings of the citrus rootstock Swingle citrumelo growing in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, all plants received the same amount of water with sufficient fertilizer N but in three irrigation frequencies applied in 10 1.5-mL pulses per day, one 15-mL application per day, or 45 mL applied every 3 days. Plants irrigated at the highest frequency grew the least total dry weight and had the highest specific root length. Plants with lowest irrigation frequency grew the most and used the least water so had the highest water use efficiency. There were no irrigation frequency effects on relative growth allocation between shoot and roots, net gas exchange of leaves, or on leaf N. A second experiment used identical biweekly irrigation volumes and fertilizer rates, but water and fertilizer were applied using four frequency combinations: 1) daily fertigation; 2) daily irrigation with fertilizer solution applied every 15 days; 3) fertigation every 3 days; or 4) irrigation every 3 days and fertilizer solution applied every 14 days. Total plant growth was unaffected by treatments, but the highest frequency using the lowest fertilizer concentration grew the greatest root dry weight in the uppermost soil depths. Roots grew less and leaf N was highest when N was applied every 15 days, implying that root N uptake efficiency was increased when fertigated with the highest fertilizer concentration. All plants had similar water use efficiencies. A third experiment was conducted with irrigation every 3 days and with four different N application frequencies: every 3, 6, 12, or 24 days using four fertilizer concentrations but resulting in similar total N amounts every 24 days. There were no differences in growth, gas exchange, or water use efficiency. Given the fact that all treatments received adequate and equal amounts of water and fertilizer, fertigation frequency had only small effects on plant growth, although very high frequency fertigation decreased N uptake efficiency.