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Adam D. Karl, Ian A. Merwin, Michael G. Brown, Rebecca A. Hervieux, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

before the groundcover treatments were established and used to collect leachate water for analysis of nutrient and agrochemical content. In the northeastern United States, a few scion buds on each vine are often protected from cold temperatures by hilling

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Gladis M. Zinati, John Dighton, and Arend-Jan Both

). The goal of this study was to develop a system that could improve plant growth and reduce nutrient concentration in leachates to minimize the environmental impact from commercial production of container-grown woody ornamental ericaceous plants. The

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Eugene K. Blythe, Donald J. Merhaut, Julie P. Newman, and Joseph P. Albano

Leachate from containerized substrate containing one of four different controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were monitored for concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo during a 47-week period. Environmental and cultural practices simulated an unheated greenhouse production program typically used for low-nutrient-requiring crops such as azalea and camellia. Leachate concentrations of all nutrients were relatively high during the first 10 to 20 weeks of the study, and then gradually decreased during the remaining portion of the experiment. Few differences were observed among fertilizer types. Of the elements monitored, only Fe and Mn leachate concentrations were above critical levels specified in the Clean Water Act by the U.S. EPA.

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Jong-Goo Kang and Marc W. van Iersel

toxicities ( Dubey, 1996 ). Researchers previously have reported that higher than recommended leachate electrical conductivity (EC) can reduce plant growth ( Gislerød and Mortensen, 1990 ; James and van Iersel, 2001 ; Kang and van Iersel, 2001 ; Nemali and

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Ariana P. Torres, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Roberto G. Lopez

PT method as described by Wright (1986) and adapted by Cavins et al. (2008) is as follows. The crop should be irrigated 30 to 60 min before collecting leachate to ensure that the container substrate is at or near full water-holding capacity. If

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Stephanie E. Burnett and Marc W. van Iersel

pollution from fertilizer runoff that contains nitrates and phosphorus ( Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001 ). Because leachate volume correlates positively with irrigation volume, irrigating efficiently is a straightforward and inexpensive way to reduce leaching and

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Jeremy R. Pinto, Rhiannon A. Chandler, and R. Kasten Dumroese

., 2002 ). In a leaching study during conifer seedling production, 11% to 19% of applied nitrogen (N) and 16% to 64% of applied phosphorus (P) were recovered in collected leachate ( Juntenen et al., 2002 ). Similarly, 46% to 65% of applied N was recovered

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Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen Jr., and Alex X. Niemiera

, how that relates to leachate volume, and how solutes move from the substrate solution and leave a container during irrigation are not fully understood. Current knowledge on solute transport is based on work in mineral soils or sands, where

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Mohammed Z. Alam, Calvin Chong, Jennifer Llewellyn, and Glen P. Lumis

production. However, the leachate or runoff from containers, especially NO 3 -N, the most mobile of all nutrients, poses a potential threat to both surface and groundwater pollution ( Colangelo and Brand, 2001 ; Davidson et al., 2000 ; Million et al., 2007

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Mayashree Chinsamy, Manoj G. Kulkarni, and Johannes Van Staden

). Vermicompost-leachate increases beneficial microbial populations, thereby improving soil fertility, which essentially improves agronomic and horticultural crop performance ( Chaoui et al., 2003 ). When compared with conventional compost applications, treatment