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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

A new bioregulator, cyclanilide (CYC, Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, N.J.), was tested for growth-related effects on apple trees over three years. Although treatment with CYC produced small reductions in shoot length, its principal effect was to stimulate the formation of lateral shoots on current-season's shoot growth and from spurs on older wood. CYC treatment of `Scarletspur Delicious' apple trees in the nursery more than doubled the formation of well-developed feathers with wide crotch angles (≈60°) and with no effect on final tree height. CYC appeared to flatten the apples and reduce fruit size in one trial. CYC appears promising for lateral branch induction in apple, especially in the nursery. Chemical names used: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (Cyclanilide); calcium 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-4-propionylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylate (prohexadione-Ca, Apogee); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + gibberellins A4A7 (Promalin); polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid).

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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

Sweet cherry trees exhibit strong apical dominance, producing vigorous, upright shoot growth with limited lateral branching, particularly in young trees ( Elfving and Visser, 2006 ; Jacyna, 2002 ; Jacyna and Puchała, 2004 ; Jacyna et al., 2005

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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

A new bioregulator, cyclanilide (CYC, Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709), was compared with a proprietary formulation of 6-benzyladenine and gibberellins A4 and A7 [Promalin (PR), Valent BioSciences, Walnut Creek, Calif.] for branching effects on sweet cherry trees. CYC stimulated the formation of lateral shoots on current-season's shoot growth under both orchard and nursery conditions. In the nursery CYC was as effective or better for feathering compared to PR in all cherry cultivars tested. There were no synergistic effects of CYC/PR tank mixes on feather development. Crotch angles of induced feathers were not different from the angles of feathers that formed spontaneously. The growth of CYC-induced feathers was sufficient to produce acceptable quality feathered trees. Trunk caliper of nursery trees was either not affected or reduced to a very minimal degree. CYC is effective for lateral branch induction in sweet cherry, especially in the nursery. Chemical names used: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenylaminocarbonyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cyclanilide); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + gibberellins A4 and A7 (Promalin); polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, dihydroxypropane, 2-butoxyethanol (Regulaid).

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Charlotte M. Guimond, Preston K. Andrews and Gregory A. Lang

Young sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are typically upright, vegetatively vigorous, and nonprecocious, taking 5 to 6 years to come into production. To produce fruit in high-density orchards by year 3 or 4, development of lateral shoots for potential fruiting is critical in year 2 or 3. An experiment was designed to promote lateral branching on 2-year-old trees. The experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard in Roosevelt, Wash., with `Bing' and `Van' on the vigorous rootstocks Mazzard and Colt. The trees were planted at 415 trees per acre with three scaffolds trained into a “V” canopy design. The experimental variables were treatments with and without Promalin (1.8% BAP plus 1.8% GA4+7), applied at a ratio of 1:3 in latex paint at green tip stage; superimposed on these treatments were either heading cuts of each scaffold to 2 m long (or tipping the scaffold if it was <2 m), removing four to five buds subtending the terminal bud, a combination of heading and bud removal, or controls. On trees that were not treated with Promalin, three additional treatments included either removing subtending buds at budbreak, or removing buds at multiple locations along the scaffold at green tip or at budbreak. New lateral shoots were counted 4 weeks after budbreak, and the quality of the shoots (shoot diameter and angle of emergence) was measured at the time of summer pruning. Interactions between Promalin, bud manipulation, and pruning will be discussed in relation to development of canopy structure.

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Yang-Key Na, Byeong-Sam Kim, Kyong-Ju Choi, Young Kim and Wol-Soo Kim*

Recently, the acreages Japanese apricot have been increased for being known of the medical functions. However, the increase of tree height, overgrowing trees and light deficiency at the bottom of canopy induced the poor fruit quality and higher labor charges. This study was conducted to assess the effects of training time, angle and length of water sprout on tree growth, the shoot-curbing, and the occurrence of new shoot for 2 years. Water sprouts were trained on 5, and 25 June, and 15 July with three varying angles of 30°, 45° and 60°, and cut at three lengths (50, 80, 110_) after harvest. Compared to control, the treatment on June 25 showed the highest values of 76%, 82% of internode and shoot length respectiely. In the treatment of training angle, shoot length was 71% in both 30° and 45° but heavily limited to 36% in 60° with comparing to control. The occurrence of shoots showed 18.1, 24.6, and 36.3 in treatment of 50, 80 and 110 cm, respectively, and in 80 cm, the number of shoot with diameter more than 0.5 mm, which is suitable for bearing mother branch, was higher. The best result was obtained in method of branch training with 45° and heading-back 80 cm at height on 15 June for the renewal of lateral branch.

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James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins

Dendranthema ×grandiflorm (Ramat.) Kitamura `Powerhouse' plants were pinched to five nodes and grown in growth chambers at 35C day temperature (DT) and 14,17,21,24, or 27C night temperature (NT) to determine if NT influenced lateral shoot development on plants exposed to high DT. Vegetative cuttings were removed from two successive flushes of lateral shoots and evaluated for lateral shoot development after rooting and subsequent apex removal. Lateral shoot development was determined on a third flush of shoots that developed on the stock plants. The percentage of nodes that developed lateral shoots on stock plants or vegetative cuttings was not related to NT. The percentage of first-order, second-order, and third-order axillary nodes that developed a lateral shoot on the stock plants, averaged over all NT, was 76, 65, and 12, respectively. The percentage of nodes that developed lateral shoots on the first-order and second-order cuttings was 29 and 19, respectively. We concluded that cool NT were ineffective in preventing a decrease in lateral branching on plants grown under high (35C) DT conditions.

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess and Guihong Bi

et al., 2013 ). Pinching promotes lateral branch development and more synchronous flowering ( Larson, 1985 ). Pinching controls plant height, enhances plant width, and increases the number of branches ( Beniwal et al., 2003 ; Rakesh et al., 2003

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Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei and Wenyan Han

lateral branches as its product organ ( Tounekti et al., 2013 ; Wu et al., 2015 ). A sufficient number of leaf buds is necessary to obtain high yield and quality ( Yao and Wu, 1990 ). However, the apical dominance of the tea plant is obvious, and the

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Takahiro Tezuka, Masashi Harada, Masahumi Johkan, Satoshi Yamasaki, Hideyuki Tanaka and Masayuki Oda

). This method enables in vivo adventitious shoot regeneration from stumps after decapitation of the primary shoot and all lateral branches. Harada et al. (2005) reported that 79 shoots were regenerated from the cut surface of primary shoots and lateral

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Karim H. Al-Juboory and David J. Williams

Three node stem cuttings of Algerian Ivy Hedera canariensis were sprayed with growth regulators to incipient runoff under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that the combination of BA + GA4+7, (Promalin) promoted branching of Algerian Ivy better than applications of BA or GA4+7 alone. Plants treated with Atrinal developed more shoots per node than those treated with GA4+7, BA, or Promalin. Increasing concentration of Atrinal from 0 to 3000 ppm, also reduced branch length and leaf number for both pinched and unpinched plants. 2,3,5—triodobenzoic acid (TIBA) significantly increased the branching of Algerian Ivy, although plant shape was not commercially acceptable due to epinasity of the foliage.