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Saadat Sarikhani Khorami, Kazem Arzani, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Abdolali Shojaeiyan and Wilco Ligterink

temperature for 1 month ( Zeneli et al., 2005 ). Nut and kernel weight were determined, using a digital balance. Kernel percentage was calculated by kernel weight/nut weight × 100. Lateral-bearing habit was measured based on the percentage of current season

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William H. Olson, D.E. Ramos, K. Ryugo and R.G. Snyder

Annual pruning was compared with nonpruning for 8 years and to two biennial pruning treatments for 4 years in a mature full-canopied `Ashley' walnut (Juglans regia L.) orchard. Light penetration and nut distribution through the canopy was improved by pruning. Nut size and percent edible kernel was consistently lower in nonpruned trees than in trees pruned annually or biennially. Yield from annually pruned trees was not significantly different from that of the nonpruned trees because of the removal of fruitful spurs. Yield of biennially pruned trees was similar to annually pruned or nonpruned trees in the year following pruning, but yield was usually greater during years in which trees were not pruned.

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Baojun Zhao, Feng Liu, Yonghong Gong, Dongsheng Li, Yahui Chang and Yunfei Wang

. The germplasm ‘11001’ is a selection with a lateral bearing habit and was used as the male parent due to its robust growth, smooth nut surface, and thin nutshell. ‘Liaoning 1’ was preliminarily selected as a desirable genotype based on its lateral

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Reza Amiri, Kourosh Vahdati, Somayeh Mohsenipoor, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari and Charles Leslie

traits of walnut and found heritabilities above 0.80 for shell thickness, nut and kernel weights and dates of leafing, first pollen shed, pistil receptivity, and harvest. The heritability was above 0.39 for lateral bearing, shell seal, percent light

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Charles T. Rohla*, Michael W. Smith, Niels O. Maness and William R. Reid

Whole fruit clusters were collected from three shoot types: terminal and lateral shoots without secondary growth, and shoots with secondary growth. Fruit per cluster was counted and nuts were individually weighed, shelled and graded. Return bloom of the same shoots was measured. Results indicated that cluster size of lateral bearing shoots was negatively related to next year's average kernel weight, nut weight, and kernel percentage. However, only kernel percentage was related to cluster size on terminal bearing shoots, and none of these parameters were related to cluster size on shoots with secondary growth. Cluster size and total kernel weight per shoot were positively related for the three shoot types. Return bloom of terminal shoots was negatively related to cluster size, but cluster size did not affect return bloom of the other shoot types.

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William W. Coates

The ability to remove the pistillate flowers and young nuts from precocious lateral-bearing English walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars during the first several years following planting would be useful both in reducing competition with vegetative growth and eliminating potential infection sites for blackline disease (cherry leafroll virus). Applications of ethephon shortly after full bloom were shown to effectively remove all or most pistillate flowers depending upon spray timing and ethephon concentration. Moderate phytotoxicity and reduced seasonal growth limit the usefulness of this technique in the field. Removal of staminate flowers (catkins) prior to pollen release may reduce the excessive pistillate flower abscission of the `Serr' cultivar. Applications of ethephon shortly before the onset of pollen shedding were shown to be ineffective in catkin removal.

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Ana Fita, Belén Picó, Antonio J. Monforte and Fernando Nuez

the ratio SRL/SRN [ALSR (in centimeters)]. For the TRS, the following parameters were evaluated (4, 6, and 8 d): number of secondary roots bearing tertiary roots (SRT); the proportion of laterals bearing tertiaries, calculated as the ratio SRT

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John R. Clark and Chad E. Finn

comparable to Pawnee, exceeded Desirable, and with less alternate bearing than both. PERSIAN WALNUT Charles A. Leslie, Walnut Improvement Program, University of California, Davis, CA Robert Livermore. A lateral-bearing walnut with red seedcoat