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Lynn Burney and Richard L. Harkess

Maintaining annual color throughout the long summer season in warm temperate regions has become an interest to landscapers and nursery operators. Some colorscaping companies have begun implementing a second summer planting season. There is little information available concerning suitable cultivars and species of bedding plants for establishment in late summer. This study examined plant establishment in two container sizes and three dates of transplanting to determine late season establishment in Starkville, Miss. (33°27' latitude, 88°49' longitude). Seeds of 27 different cultivars were grown in plug flats in the greenhouse and transplanted into jumbo 606 or 10-cm square containers. The plants were grown in the greenhouse until transplanting on 16 Aug., 30 Aug., or 13 Sept. 1996. The plants were transplanted into plots containing nine plants with three replications per planting date. The plants were spaced on 20-cm centers among and between plots. The earliest two plantings resulted in better plant establishment and floral display. Some of the cultivars and species were more tolerant of the late season temperature and humidity establishing and providing a good color display from 6 weeks after transplanting until frost, 2 Nov. 1996. Cultivars that performed well included: Impatiens wallerana `Deco Crystal', `Expo Lavender Blush', `Dazzler Salmon', Begonia semperflorens `Varsity Bronze Scarlet', Zinnia `White Pinwheel', Tagetes erecta `Marvel Gold', and Tagetes patula `Bonanza Harmony'. Cultivars that did not establish well under these conditions included: Verbena hybrida `Romance Pink' and Salvia splendens `Salsa Salmon'. The container size did not significantly affect plant establishment.

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Craig E. Kallsen, Blake Sanden and Mary Lu Arpaia

-Perez et al., 2009 ; Romero et al., 2006 ; Treeby et al., 2007 ). The effect of late-season water stress on yield has been mixed with some researchers reporting no change ( Hutton et al., 2007 ; Perez-Perez et al., 2009 ) and others reduced yields

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William L. Holdsworth, Carly F. Summers, Michael Glos, Christine D. Smart and Michael Mazourek

et al., 2010 ). In many northern areas, organic cucumber growers and those harvesting in the late season have responded to the disease by ceasing production entirely after downy mildew moves into their local areas (Northeast Organic Farming

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Juan Carlos Melgar, Jill M. Dunlop, L. Gene Albrigo and James P. Syvertsen

midseason orange cultivars ( Li and Syvertsen, 2005 ). In addition, mechanical harvesting during peak bloom (approximately March) in late-season ‘Valencia’ orange trees does not remove any more flowers than manual harvesting so mechanical harvesting has

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W. Garrett Owen, Alyssa Hilligoss and Roberto G. Lopez

States ( Starman et al., 1995 ). In addition, Ortiz et al. (2012) compared early- to very late-season planting (late spring to late summer) in a high tunnel to field-grown specialty cut flowers in the midwestern United States. A high tunnel is a single

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Juan Carlos Melgar, Jill M. Dunlop and James P. Syvertsen

and Syvertsen, 2005 ). There is a continuing problem in late-season MH of ‘Valencia’ sweet orange, however, because fruitlets from the next season's crop may be large enough to be unavoidably removed by the harvesting machine ( Burns et al., 2006

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Andreas Winkler, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, Julian Lindstaedt and Dirk Köpcke

) is functional in older fruit. Positive relationships between late-season surface wetness and skin spot severity were also obtained in the field observations. Here, the r values were highest for correlations with late-season wetness. The higher r

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Steven J. MacKenzie, Craig K. Chandler, Tomas Hasing and Vance M. Whitaker

, flower counts were monitored to determine the beginning of the peak bloom period that precedes the late-season peak harvest cycle. On the first Friday of the peak bloom, 26 Jan. 2007 for the 2006–2007 season and 8 Feb. 2008 for the 2007–2008 season, 48

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Timothy M. Spann, Luis V. Pozo, Igor Kostenyuk and Jacqueline K. Burns

harvesting on tree health ( Li et al., 2005 ), and issues related to the late-season harvesting of ‘Valencia’ oranges ( Melgar et al., 2010 ). ‘Valencia’ orange trees typically bloom in late February through March in Florida and the mature crop is harvested

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Rebecca A. Kraimer, William C. Lindemann and Esteban A. Herrera

The recovery of late-season (September) 15N-labeled fertilizer (N at 55 kg·ha-1) was followed in mature pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangehn.) K. Koch] and soil (0-270 cm) from 1996 (application year) through 2001 (end of study). Recovery of late-season applied 15N was compared to the recovery of six 15N applications (March through June, N at 221 kg·ha-1) of a previously reported study. By Nov. 1996, both fertilizer schedules exhibited considerable 15N accumulation below the rooting zone and just above the water table (280 cm), with 43.4% and 35.3% 15N recovered from the soil sampling profile of the September and March-June schedules, respectively. 15Nitrogen recoveries from perennial storage tissues (root and wood) were 20.6% and 10.1% under the September and March-June schedules, respectively. The 15N recoveries from annual abscission tissues (leaf, shuck, and nut) were 1.4% and 10.6% under the September and March-June schedules, respectively. By the end of the 2001 growing season, 4% and 9% of the 15N remained in the soil following the September and March-June applications, respectively. Under both fertilizer schedules, >80% of the fertilizer-N was lost to the environment through natural processes and very little was removed during harvest. Nearly 6 years following application, perennial storage of 15N remained greater in the September application (4.3% of the 15N applied) than in the March-June application (2.7% of the 15N applied). Late-season application of fertilizer-N during the kernel filling stage was stored in perennial tissues for use the following year; very little was used for current year growth of annual tissues. Increased accumulation of perennial storage N by late-season application may reduce the depletion of N caused during a heavy-cropping on-year and may moderate the alternate-bearing trend in pecan by providing a greater reservoir of N the following year.