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Preeti Sood, Chris Ference, Jan Narciso and Ed Etxeberria

labeled as described by Etxeberria et al. (2006) using a low-energy carbon dioxide laser etching machine (model XY Mark-10; Sunkist Growers, Fontana, CA) located at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred, FL

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Ed Etxeberria, William M. Miller and Diann Achor

Fruit etching is an alterative means to label produce. Laser beam-generated pinhole depressions form dot-matrix alphanumerical characters that etch in the required price-look-up information. Pinhole depressions can disrupt the cuticular and epidermal barriers, potentially weakening the natural protection against pathogens. In the present study we describe the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the pinhole depressions in the cuticle/epidermis, and the changes taking place during storage of two fruits: avocado (Persea americana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). These fruits represent the extremes from a thick, non-edible peel to a thin edible peel. On both tomato and avocado, etching depressions were fairly similar in diameter and depth, averaging 200 μm and 25 μm, respectively, for energy impact durations of 30 μs for tomato and 45 μs for avocado. Immediately after etching, the two- to five-cell-deep depressions contained cuticle/wax deposits. Additional cuticle/wax material was deposited in and around the depressions during storage as demonstrated by confocal, fl uorescent, and light microscopy. In addition, the cells underlining the etch depression increased phenolic and lignin deposits in their walls, creating a potential barrier against pathogenic organisms.

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Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Benjamin R. Warren and Keith R. Schneider

alternative to using removable adhesive stickers with produce data is implanting the alphanumeric code directly on the produce surface. This can be accomplished using a newly designed laser etching device for labeling produce surfaces. The new device uses a

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. Labeling fruit and vegetables using laser technology Fruit labeling using a laser-etching beam is an efficient alternative to self-adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous, but potential secondary effects remain unknown. Etxeberria et al

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sticker removal, and the potential for detachment. One alternative is etching an alphanumeric code directly on the produce surface using a laser-etching device. The code produced by the laser is permanent and requires no adhesive. Yuk et al. (p. 67

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Ed Etxeberria, Pedro Gonzalez, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Parvesh Sharma and Pu Chun Ke

used a laser light beam which created superficial perforations in the cuticle ( Fig. 1A ) ( Etxeberria et al., 2009 ) allowing the NPs to reach the cell wall space. Leaves were lasered using a low-energy carbon dioxide laser etching machine (model XY

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approach used to identify those low latitude countries where existing worldwide CM distribution reports appear to be in error. The analysis supports the concept of host-independent ecological limits to the distribution of CM. Laser Etching Is a Safe