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Stephen N. Wegulo and Miguel Vilchez

D elphinium is a genus comprising three hundred or more distinct species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae ( Bassett and Bassett, 2007 ). True delphiniums are herbaceous perennials. The common name, larkspur, is shared with a separate, closely

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Todd J. Cavins, John M. Dole, and Vicki Stamback

Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), larkspur [Consolida ambigua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heyw.], delphinium (Delphinium ×cultorum Voss.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), lupine (Lupinus hartwegii Lindl.), stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.], and pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams.) were grown in raised sandy loam ground beds in double-layered polyethylene-covered greenhouses which were either unheated (ambient) or had a 55 °F (13 °C) minimum night temperature in year 1 and 36 or 50 °F (2 or 10 °C) minimum night temperature in year 2. Results were species specific; however, the extreme low temperatures [21 °F (-6 °C)] in the unheated house limited delphinium and lupine production. The warmest greenhouses (55 and 50 °F) reduced production time for anemone, delphinium, larkspur, lupine (year 2), snapdragon (year 2),stock, and sunflower. The coolest greenhouses (unheated and 36 °F) increased stem lengths for anemone (year 2), delphinium, larkspur (year 1), lupine (year 2), snapdragon, stock, and sunflower. The coolest green-houses also yielded a profit or lower net loss for all species except delphinium, lupine, and snapdragon (year 2) for which profits were highest or net losses were lowest in the warmest greenhouses.

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall

in 13 field-grown, cut flower cultivars: ageratum (two cultivars), celosia, delphinium, foxglove, larkspur, lobelia, ornamental pepper, stock, sweet william, dianthus (two cultivars), yarrow, and zinnia. Materials and methods Experiments with 13 cut

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Toshiki Asao, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Kazuyori Ushio, Yukio Sueda, Takuya Ban, and M. Habibur Rahman Pramanik

( Pramanik et al., 2000 ). Root dry weight of lily and rocket larkspur was reduced to ≈85% and 74%, respectively, followed by prairie gentian with growth reduced to 55%. Root length of lily was reduced to ≈58%, whereas that in prairie-gentian was reduced to

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Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno

Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. Stems of promising and productive cultivars from the National Trial Program were pretreated with either a commercial hydrating solution or deionized (DI) water and placed in either a commercial holding solution or DI water. Over 8 years, the vase life of 121 cultivars representing 47 cut flower genera was determined. Although there was cultivar variation within each genus, patterns of postharvest responses have emerged. The largest category, with 53 cultivars, was one in which a holding preservative increased vase life of the following genera and species: acidanthera (Gladiolus murielae), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bee balm (Monarda hybrid), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hybrids), campanula (Campanula species), celosia (Celosia argentea), common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), coral bells (Heuchera hybrids), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), ladybells (Adenophora hybrid), lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), pincushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpurea), pinkflower (Indigofera amblyantha), seven-sons flower (Heptacodium miconioides), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum superbum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), trachelium (Trachelium caeruleum), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans). Hydrating preservatives increased the vase life of four basils, coral bells, and sunflower cultivars. The combined use of hydrator and holding preservatives increased the vase life of three black-eyed susan, seven-sons flower, and sunflower cultivars. Holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 14 cultivars of the following genera and species: ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), false queen anne's lace (Ammi species), knotweed (Persicaria hybrid), lisianthus, pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and zinnia. Hydrating preservatives reduced the vase life of 18 cultivars of the following genera and species: feverfew, lisianthus, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, seven-sons flower, shasta daisy, sneezeweed, sweet william, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. The combined use of hydrating and holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 12 cultivars in the following genera and species: false queen anne's lace, feverfew, pincushion flower, sneezeweed, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. Data for the remaining 50 cultivars were not significant among the treatments; these genera and species included beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), black-eyed susan, blue mist (Caryopteris clandonensis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), campanula, cleome (Cleome hasserliana), common ninebark, dahlia (Dahlia hybrids), delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), flowering peach (Prunus persica forma versicolor), heliopsis (Heliopsis helianthoides), hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum), himalayan honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa), hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), larkspur (Consolida hybrids), lily of the nile (Agapanthus hybrid), lisianthus, lobelia, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, scented geranium (Pelargonium hybrid), sunflower, sweet william, and zinnia.

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Cristian E. Loyola, John M. Dole, and Rebecca Dunning

et al., 2010 ). Although many respondents noted diseases in general without listing a specific disease, black spot was a disease specifically mentioned by respondents. Germination was a significant problem in the production of larkspur for 20% of

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Charles S. Krasnow and Mary K. Hausbeck

lycopersicum ) when incorporated into potting soil at 250 μg·mL −1 in a greenhouse study ( Ioannou and Grogan, 1984 ), and a single drench of etridiazole at 100 μg·mL −1 reduced root rot of larkspur ( Delphinium sp.) to <5% ( Bloch et al., 1976

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Neil O. Anderson and Richard T. Olsen

potted plant use ( Anderson, 2006 ). Burbank sought to change floral display in larkspur or delphiniums, sowing a population of the species Delphinium hybridum , which trace back primarily to D. elatum ( Burbank, 1914–15 ). He selected one seedling