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Bert M. Cregg and Robert Schutzki

mulch study at the Michigan State University Horticulture Teaching and Research center in late Summer 2004. The goal of the project was to determine the response of several common landscape shrubs to four widely used and commercially available mulches

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Christopher B. Kindred and J.M. Zajicek

Survivability of ornamental landscape plants during transport and the early stages of transplanting is a concern of the nursery and landscape industries. An effective antitranspirant may help avoid unnecessary plant losses during these periods of plant stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new experimental antitranspirant on whole-plant transpiration of two ornamental landscape shrubs. Plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Photinia ×fraseri were treated with the experimental antitranspirant N2001. Treatment rates included: 0% (as a control), 10%, 12.5%, or 15%. All treatments were mixed as a percentage of N2001 in a given volume of reverse osmosis water and applied to the roots as a drench. Whole-plant transpiration was determined gravimetrically by weighing the plants daily. Stem-flow gauges further monitored daily water use on an hourly basis. At the termination of the experiment, leaf areas and leaf dry weights were determined. Application of the antitranspirant reduced whole-plant transpiration immediately for all treated plants compared to that of control plants. On day 1, the 10%, 12.5%, and 15% treatments significantly reduced whole-plant transpiration levels by 41%, 50%, and 62%, respectively, compared to untreated plants. On day 3 and 4, the antitranspirant was still effective, reducing whole-plant transpiration by 47% and 24% on average, respectively, compared to untreated plants. By day five there were no significant differences in whole-plant transpiration between any treatment. Differences in whole plant transpiration can be attributed to antitranspirant application due to lack of differences in leaf area, dry weight or leaf area ratio between any treatment.

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Chris A. Martin, Sean A. Whitcomb, and Jean C. Stutz

number of factors, including overplanting and human aesthetic preferences ( Martin, 2008 ; Martin et al., 2003 ). The impact that frequent shearing of foliage from landscape shrubs has on the below-ground allocations of carbon to roots is not well

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David C. Zlesak

landscape shrub. Greater variation in plant size and leaf color in newer cultivars has especially contributed to its popularity. ‘Monlo’ (Diabolo ® , frequently incorrectly spelled Diablo ® ) was the first commercialized purple-leafed cultivar. It was

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A.L. Shober, C. Wiese, G.C. Denny, C.D. Stanley, and B.K. Harbaugh

substrate pH of substrates containing 3S:0R:0C, 0S:3R:0C, 2S:0R:1C, and 1S:0R:2C from pH 3.5, 5, 4.2, and 4.7, respectively, to pH 6.5. Plant materials and experimental design. Three landscape shrub species, walter's viburnum, sandankwa viburnum, and

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James E. Klett and Carl Wilson

Four woody plant species were grown during the 1988 and 1989 growing seasons under three irrigation treatments at two sites in two soil types. The three irrigation treatments which were implemented included: 1) control, 2) drip irrigated with no water stress, and 3) drip irrigated with water stress. Rainfall and additional water applied during the 1988 and '89 growing seasons were recorded. Analysis of this data showed the no stress treatment receiving more water at both sites, especially in 1989. After two years of growth, no statistical differences in new growth (height) were observed with any plant species evaluated at either site from the three water treatments. Comparing new growth, no statistical differences were observed except with Juniperus sabina. No visual differences were observed with Ribes alpinum and Cornus sericea. Visual differences were observed with Potentilla fruticosa and Juniperus sabina. The experiment will be continued during the 1990 growing season.

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Shelley A. McReynolds, J.M. Zajicek, W.A. Mackay, and J. L. Heilman

A study was conducted to explore how different mulches affect water use of landscape plants. Plots 4.9 m × 7.3 m, were covered with 5cm pine bark, cypress, white rock, or clay aggregate. 3 potted plants of Ligustrum japonicum (wax-leaf ligustrum) and Photinia × fraseri (red tip photinia) were placed in each plot so that the top of each pot was at ground level. 1 plant of each species was planted directly into each plot. Water loss was measured on a daily basis, both gravimetrically and using heat balance stem flow gauges, during both the 1992 and 1993 growing seasons. Stomatal conductance was measured periodically during each growing season. Surface, air, and soil temperatures at two depths were recorded. During 1992, pine bark mulched plants consistently used more water than the other treatments, as opposed to summer 1993 when the most water was used by plants over white rock. Surface temperatures of pine bark, cypress and clay aggregates were higher than those of white rock both years, by as much as 20C, while temperatures under the mulch varied as much as 5C between pine bark and white rock.

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Chris A. Martin, William P. Sharp, John M. Ruter, and Richard L. Garcia

Paclobutrazol at 0 and 750 μl·liter–1 was sprayed on shoots of Feijoa sellowiana O. Berg. and Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. grown under similar production regimes in central Arizona (subtropical desert) and southern Georgia (humid temperate). Five months after application, Feijoa and Ligustrum leaves were generally smaller and thicker in Arizona than in Georgia. Arizona leaves were thicker than those in Georgia because of more layers of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. Compared with leaves from control plants, paclobutrazol 1) increased Feijoa leaf area in Georgia, 2) decreased Ligustrum leaf area at both locations by ≈50%, and 3) decreased leaf thickness of both species in Arizona. Arizona Feijoa leaves had trichomes on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, whereas Georgia Feijoa leaves had trichomes on abaxial surfaces only. Paclobutrazol increased trichome frequency on adaxial surfaces of Arizona Feijoa leaves. Stomatal frequency of Georgia Feijoa leaves was about doubled by paclobutrazol. Reflectance of near-infrared radiation by paclobutrazol-treated Feijoa leaves was 1.4 times higher than that of nontreated leaves in Georgia and 1.9 times in Arizona. Near-infrared reflectance by Georgia Ligustrum leaves was 1.3 times higher than by Arizona Ligustrum leaves and was not affected by paclobutrazol. Leaf reflectance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by Arizona Feijoa was higher than by Georgia Feijoa. Paclobutrazol increased PAR reflectance by Arizona Feijoa leaves. In contrast, Georgia Feijoa PAR reflectance was decreased by paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol or location did not affect Ligustrum PAR reflectance. Chemical name used: (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).

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Belinda Love, Wayne S Johnson, and George C.J. Fernandez

Germination of purple sage [Salvia dorrii (Kellogg) Abrams] seed was evaluated under 21 temperature combinations (day temperatures from 5 to 30C and night temperatures from 5 to 30C) in two experiments: 1) cool-moist stratification; and 2) sandpaper scarification, leaching with water, or gibberellic acid (GA3). The quadratic responses of weighted germination percentage (WGP), a combined index of germination percentage and speed of germination, were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for all treatments. The interaction of day and night temperatures was significant (P ≤ 0.05) only for the 2-week stratification treatments and for the Expt. 2 control. Stratification increased WGP over the control. Optimal WGP for all stratification treatments ranged from 46% to 51%. Optimal WGP was the same for both GA3 treatments. Optimal WGP for 0.29 mmol GA3 occurred at 16C night temperature and 22C day temperature, and for the 1.44 mmol GA3 treatment at 18C night and at 30C day temperature.

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A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, and M. Paz

irrigation recommendations for plant vigor published by Shober et al. (2009) , Moore et al. (2009) , and Wiese et al. (2009) . A total of 21 commonly planted native and non-native landscape shrubs was established using these procedures. Despite the public