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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser and Gitta Hasing

Since 2,4-D was discovered in the 1940s, development and use of herbicides has continually increased ( Timmons, 2005 ). Use of herbicides in residential landscapes is also increasing. From 1994 to 2007, there has been a 60% increase in sales of

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Tim R. Pannkuk, Jacqueline A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, Kurt Steinke, James C. Thomas, David R. Chalmers and Richard H. White

the formation of trihalomethanes if the surface water is removed and chlorinated for drinking water supply ( Siddiqui et al., 1997 ). Effective landscape management practices in urban landscapes must include an awareness of nutrient removal from soil

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Sam Marshall, David Orr, Lucy Bradley and Christopher Moorman

chemical-intensive landscaping in public areas ( Beyond Pesticides, 2010 ). IPM practices and policies have been adopted in publicly managed green spaces throughout the United States. In Mar. 1999, Carrboro, NC, adopted an IPM program for all publically

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A. James Downer, Donald R. Hodel and Maren J. Mochizuki

Palms are arborescent monocotyledons that do not usually branch along their stem. Consequently, pruning landscape palms is essentially the removal of inflorescences and leaves from the lower portion of the canopy or, in the case of multiple trunked

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Tim R. Pannkuk, Richard H. White, Kurt Steinke, Jacqueline A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, David R. Chalmers and James C. Thomas

will be insufficient by the year 2050 in Texas ( TWDB, 2003 ). Currently, 7.8 billion gallons, or ≈30% of all potable water, is used outdoors ( U.S. Geologic Survey, 2006 ) primarily for landscape irrigation ( Kjelgren et al., 2000 ; Vickers, 2001

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Robert F. Brzuszek, Richard L. Harkess and Lelia Kelly

introduction by, humans. Consumers are increasingly selecting native plants for use in home landscapes for a variety of reasons. Many local, state, and federal agencies are requiring the use of native plants in the landscape ( HarmonyFL.com, 2008 ; Norcini

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Susan S. Barton, Rebecca S. Pineo and Leslie Carter

University campuses provide an excellent opportunity to research and demonstrate sustainable landscape practices. Most campuses include significant land resources, a variety of building types, and diverse plantings. University campuses must be

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen and Rolston St. Hilaire

In desert communities, residents aspire to balance their preferred landscape with the need for water conservation ( Spinti et al., 2004 ). This balance is a challenge for homeowners who desire to select their favorite landscape, but do not know the

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Rolston St. Hilaire, Michael A. Arnold, Don C. Wilkerson, Dale A. Devitt, Brian H. Hurd, Bruce J. Lesikar, Virginia I. Lohr, Chris A. Martin, Garry V. McDonald, Robert L. Morris, Dennis R. Pittenger, David A. Shaw and David F. Zoldoske

indicates that climate-related differences in outdoor water use contribute significantly to the high water use in arid western states ( Emrath, 2000 ). Landscape irrigation contributes to most of southern Nevada's consumptive water use ( Sovocool et al

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Kristen A. Saksa, Thomas W. Ilvento and Susan S. Barton

Sustainable landscapes include design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs ( Sustainable Sites Initiative, 2009