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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

-to-landscape, also can be defined, analyzed, and reported. Cradle-to-gate CF of nursery and landscape plants The CF of the components of production systems for the major crop categories for landscape plants has been modeled ( Table 1 ), including a field-grown shade

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Virginia I. Lohr

problems that have spread through landscape plantings with low biodiversity. These pests, which attack more than one species within a commonly planted genus, include dogwood anthracnose ( Discula destructiva ), hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae ), and

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Genhua Niu and Raul I. Cabrera

-sensitive plant species and categorizing salt tolerance of commonly used landscape plants may aid the selection of appropriate species for landscapes where alternative sources of water are used for irrigation. General Information On Alternative Water Sources The

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, and Gitta Hasing

( Beard and Green, 1994 ). Well-maintained landscapes also have been shown to increase property values ( Henry, 1994 ). Chemical weed control in landscape planting beds presents unique challenges not present in cropping systems. First, herbicides that are

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Janet S. Hartin, David W. Fujino, Lorence R. Oki, S. Karrie Reid, Charles A. Ingels, and Darren Haver

Between 40% and 70% of water used in urban settings in the United States is applied to landscape plantings ( Cabrera et al., 2013 ; Haley et al., 2007 ; Kjelgren et al., 2000 ; St. Hilaire et al., 2008 ). Water conservation in urban landscapes in

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, and Gitta Hasing

perspective, weed control is critical to landscape survival in the first year after transplanting as installed plants are not yet competitive and weed pressure is often greater following site disturbance ( Davison, 1983 ). Weeds can outcompete landscape plants

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, Gitta Hasing, Drew McClean, and Annette Chandler

further reduce costs. Following an extensive review of the literature ( Marble et al., 2015a , 2015b ), to our knowledge there have been no previous reports of the estimated annual cost of common weed control methods in landscape planting beds. Therefore

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Melinda Knuth, Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Patricia T. Huddleston, and R. Thomas Fernandez

perceptions of water use and source with regard to landscape plants. These discoveries can be used to better inform educational and marketing efforts to help sustain the green industry during drought periods. Household water usage in the United States is

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Ji Jhong Chen, Yuxiang Wang, Asmita Paudel, and Youping Sun

irrigation water with an EC of 6.0 dS·m –1 . The thresholds for their salinity tolerance have not been identified. To this end, a greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the responses of these three landscape plants to saline irrigation water using an

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Catherine A. Paul, Greg L. Davis, Garald L. Horst, and Steven N. Rodie

Water conservation in a landscape is an important issue because periodic water shortages are common in many regions of the world. This increases the importance of specifying landscape plants that require less water and matching the plant to site microclimates. Our objectives were to establish water-use rates for three herbaceous landscape plants and to determine the level of water reduction these plants can tolerate while maintaining both visual and landscape quality. Water use rates were determined for Schizachyrium scoparium (Little bluestem), Hosta spp. (Hosta) and Festuca cinerea `Dwarf' (Dwarf blue fescue) in studies using pot lysimeters at the Univ. of Nebraska Horticulture Research Greenhouse facility. Each lysimeter was watered to saturation, allowed to drain to field capacity, and weighed. The lysimeters were weighed again 24 h later, and the process was repeated to determine daily evapotranspiration. Results indicated that hosta used less water than dwarf blue fescue and little bluestem. In a subsequent study to compare the relative effects of withholding irrigation among these species, seven groups of five replicates of each species were grown in 1 peat: 0.33 vermiculite: 0.66 soil: 1 sand (by volume) in 7.6-L containers. Each container was watered to saturation, allowed to drain for 24 h to reach field capacity, and allowed to dry down in 10-day increments. Results of the dry-down study indicated that little bluestem maintained the best visual quality for the longest duration of drought, followed by dwarf blue fescue and hosta in decreasing order of visual quality.