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Raul I. Cabrera, James E. Altland, and Genhua Niu

Municipal tap water, potable and often of the highest quality for direct human consumption and uses (cooking, bathing, etc.), has been the traditional source for urban landscape irrigation. In some regions, such as Texas, as much as one-half of the

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Catherine C. Lavis and Laura A. Brannon

It is estimated that as much as 3.5 billion gallons (13.25 million cubic meters) of landscape irrigation water is lost or wasted due to evaporation, wind, or improper irrigation system design, installation, and maintenance in the United States each

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Dennis R. Pittenger, David A. Shaw, and William E. Richie

We conducted an evaluation of three commercial weather-sensing irrigation controllers to determine the climatic data they use, how easy they are to set up and operate, and how closely their irrigation regimes match landscape irrigation needs established by previous field research. The devices virtually controlled an existing reference irrigation system and used its system performance data as required in their initial setup. Reference standard treatments for cool-season turfgrass, trees/shrubs and annual flowers were calculated using onsite, real-time reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data and plant factors developed primarily from previous research. The reference irrigation system applied the correct amount of water to an actual tall fescue turfgrass planting whose water needs served as the reference standard treatment comparison for the cool-season turfgrass treatment. Virtual applied water was recorded for other plant materials and it was compared to the corresponding calculated reference standard amount. Results show each controller adjusted its irrigation schedules through the year roughly in concert with weather and ETo changes, but the magnitudes of adjustments were not consistently in proportion to changes in ETo. No product produced highly accurate irrigation schedules consistently for every landscape setting when compared to research-based reference comparison treatments. Greater complexity and technicality of required setup information did not always result in more accurate, water-conserving irrigation schedules. Use of a weather-sensing controller does not assure landscape water conservation or acceptable landscape plant performance, and it does not eliminate human interaction in landscape irrigation management.

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Laura A. Warner, Amanda D. Ali, and Anil Kumar Chaudhary

United States, had irrigation systems in their home landscape, and controlled their home landscape irrigation. Those who did not meet these criteria were excluded from this study. The next part of the instrument measured the study’s eight independent

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Terri Starman

May through October in the Southwest is used for landscape irrigation ( Kjelgren et al., 2000 ). Currently, reclaimed water has been used mainly for irrigating golf courses and some horticultural production such as cut flower production in coastal

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Iryna Andrenko, Thayne Montague, Cynthia McKenney, and Russell Plowman

sources (such as reclaimed water) for landscape irrigation may become necessary ( McKenney et al., 2016 ; Niu and Rodriguez, 2006a ; Qian et al., 2005 ). Moreover, reclaimed water availability increases with urban population growth ( Qian et al., 2005

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Genhua Niu and Raul I. Cabrera

the use of reclaimed water for landscape irrigation, because municipal water consumption increases two- to twofold in summer months compared with the winter season ( Kjelgren et al., 2000 ). The increased water use is largely for landscape irrigation

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Genhua Niu, Terri Starman, and David Byrne

127 157 Grieve, C. Wu, L. Rollins, L. Harivandi, A. 2008 Tolerance by landscape plants of salinity and of specific ions. In: A comprehensive literature review on salt management guide for landscape irrigation with recycled water in coastal southern

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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

Ornamental chile peppers are popular bedding plants. As high-quality water supply becomes limited in many parts of the world, alternative waters such as municipal reclaimed water is encouraged to be used for landscape irrigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative salt tolerance of 10 cultivars of ornamental chile peppers by irrigating the mature plants with saline solutions and germinating seeds in saline substrate in a greenhouse. In the mature plant salt tolerance experiment, plants were irrigated with nutrient solution (no addition of salts, control) or saline solution at electrical conductance (EC) of 4.1 dS·m−1 or 8.1 dS·m−1 for 8 weeks. Plants in the EC of 4.1 dS·m−1 treatment did not have any foliar salt damage regardless of cultivar. At EC of 8.1 dS·m−1, ‘NuMex Memorial Day’ had the most severe foliar salt damage, whereas ‘NuMex April Fool’s Day’, ‘NuMex Cinco de Mayo’, ‘NuMex Thanksgiving’, and ‘NuMex Twilight’ had little or no foliar damage. Shoot dry weight (DW) reduction at EC of 8.1 dS·m−1 compared with control was smallest in ‘NuMex Thanksgiving’ (15%), whereas ‘NuMex Memorial Day’ had the greatest reduction of 74% followed by ‘NuMex Christmas’ of 61%. The highest shoot DW reduction in ‘NuMex Memorial Day’ coincided with lowest visual score, indicating that this cultivar was the least tolerant to salinity. The leaf Na+ and Cl concentrations increased dramatically with increasing EC of the irrigation water in all cultivars. The highest Na+ concentration of 10.9 mg·g−1 DW at EC of 8.1 dS·m−1 was observed in ‘NuMex Christmas’. The highest Cl concentration at EC of 8.1 dS·m−1 was found in ‘NuMex Memorial Day’ with 64.8 mg·g−1 DW, which was four times higher than the control. In the seedling emergence experiment, seeds of the 10 cultivars were germinated in substrate either moistened with reverse osmosis water (EC ≈0) or saline solution at EC of 17.1 dS·m−1. ‘NuMex Christmas’ and ‘NuMex Memorial Day’ had the lowest relative seedling emergence index, indicating that these two cultivars were the least tolerant to salinity during the seedling emergence stage. ‘NuMex Thanksgiving’ and ‘NuMex Cinco de Mayo’ had the highest relative seedling emergence index. Combining the results from both experiments, we concluded that ‘NuMex Cinco de Mayo’ and ‘NuMex Thanksgiving’ were the most tolerant cultivars, whereas ‘NuMex Christmas’ and ‘NuMex Memorial Day’ were the least tolerant ones.

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S.M. Scheiber, Richard C. Beeson Jr, and Sudeep Vyapari

function as a feasible economic solution for sandy soils. Intensive management of irrigation frequency and application method can significantly decrease landscape water use. Most automated landscape irrigation is controlled by preprogrammed time clocks