plant materials and landscape establishment in an integrated, hands-on manner, students learn the interconnectedness of practices necessary for successful landscape design and landscape realization. This curriculum is not without its challenges. The
Nina Bassuk and Peter Trowbridge
Donita L. Bryan, Michael A. Arnold, Astrid Volder, W. Todd Watson, Leonardo Lombardini, John J. Sloan, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, and Andrew D. Cartmill
the effect of planting depth during container production on landscape establishment of lacebark elm ( Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.). In ( A ) Expt. 1, trees were transplanted into 10.8-L containers; ( B ) in Expt. 2, trees were transplanted into 36.6-L
Anne-Marie Hanson, J. Roger Harris*, and Robert Wright
Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) is a common native shrub in the Eastern United States; however, this species can be difficult to establish in landscapes. Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of transplant season and container size on landscape establishment of Kalmia latifolia L. `Olympic Wedding'. In experiment one, 7.6-L (2-gal.) and 19-L (5-gal.) container-grown plants were planted into a simulated landscape (Blacksburg, Va., USDA plant hardiness zone 6A) in early Fall 2000 and in late Spring 2001. 19-L (5-gal.) plants had the lowest leaf xylem potential (more stressed) near the end of the first post-transplant growing season, and leaf dry weight and area were higher for spring transplants than for fall transplants. For spring transplants, 7.6-L (2-gal.) plants had the highest visual ratings, but 19-L (5-gal.) plants had the highest visual ratings for fall transplants three growing seasons after transplanting. 7.6-L (2-gal.) plants had the highest % canopy volume increase after three post-transplant growing seasons. In experiment two, 19-L (5-gal.) plants were transplanted into above-ground root observation chambers (rhizotrons) in early Fall 2000 and late Spring 2001. Roots of fall transplants grew further into the backfill than spring transplants at the end of one post-transplant growing season. Overall, our data suggest that smaller plants will be less stressed the first season after transplanting and will likely stand a better chance for successful establishment in a hot and dry environment. Fall is the preferred time to transplant since capacity for maximum root extension into the backfill will be greater than for spring transplants.
S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, M. Paz, and K.A. Moore
highly visible and provides a prime target for water restrictions and subsequent regulation ( Salamone, 2002 ; Thayer, 1982 ). Imposing water restrictions during landscape establishment can be detrimental to plants that have not had adequate time to
Yan Chen, Regina P. Bracy, Allen D. Owings, and Joey P. Quebedeaux
studies have investigated the nutrient requirements of herbaceous perennials and the possibility of grouping them by their nutrient requirements during landscape establishment ( Proctor et al., 2004 ; Strother et al., 2002 ). Nitrogen recommendations for
Lisa E. Richardson-Calfee and J. Roger Harris
Prudent landscape professionals can enhance chances for successful establishment by timing tree transplant operations to coincide with ideal seasonal conditions. However, transplant timing is usually determined by economic factors, resulting in trees being transplanted at times that are unfavorable for their survival and growth. Knowledge of the effects of season of transplanting on the establishment of landscape trees can help assure the highest probability of success, especially since special post-transplant management may be required if trees are transplanted at unfavorable times. This manuscript reviews past and current research on the effects of transplant timing on landscape establishment of deciduous shade trees. Specific results are summarized from several key studies.
Sudeep Vyapari, S.M. Scheiber, and E.L. Thralls
growth, and absence of discolored or damaged leaves ( Brand and Leonard, 2001 ). There is little evidence that indicates consumers pay attention to root ball condition at purchase, yet landscape establishment is affected by the condition of root systems
Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Nancy G. West, Christine Wiese, Gitta Hasing, Geoffrey Denny, and Gary W. Knox
Despite inconsistent reports of nitrogen (N) fertilization response on growth of landscape-grown woody ornamentals, broad N fertilization recommendations exist in the literature. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and quality response of three landscape-grown woody shrub species to N fertilizer. Three ornamental shrub species, ‘Alba’ indian hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica), sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum), and ‘RADrazz’ (Knock Out™) rose (Rosa) were transplanted into field soils in central Florida (U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zone 9a). Controlled-release N fertilizer was applied at an annual N rate of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 lb/1000 ft2 for 100 weeks. Plant size index measurements, SPAD readings (a measure of greenness), and visual quality ratings were completed every month through 52 weeks after planting (WAP) and then every 3 months through 100 WAP. Plant tissue total Kjeldahl N (TKN) concentrations and shoot biomass were measured at 100 WAP. Results of regression analysis indicated little to no plant response (size index, biomass, SPAD) to N fertilizer rate. Shrub quality was acceptable for all species through 76 WAP regardless of the N fertilization rate. However, quality of rose and sweet viburnum fertilized with N at the low rates (<2 lb/1000 ft2) was less than acceptable (<3 out of 5) after 76 WAP. Results suggest that posttransplant applications of fertilizer may not increase plant growth, but that low-to-moderate levels of N fertilization (2 to 4 lb/1000 ft2 per year) may help plant maintain quality postestablishment.
John M. Ruter
The long-term effects of paclobutrazol applied to container-grown `Mojave' pyracantha (Pyracantha ×) and `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L.) were investigated. Paclobutrazol was applied as a drench to container-grown (2.8 liter) plants at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg a.i./pot in June 1991, and plants were transplanted to the field in Feb. 1992. Pyracantha plant height, shoot and root dry weight, and total biomass (shoot dry weight + root dry weight) decreased quadratically as rate of paclobutrazol increased during nursery production. Paclobutrazol had no effect on plant height or shoot dry weight of Juniperus, although width indices were reduced. Ratings for root quality for Juniperus in containers increased as rate of paclobutrazol increased. After 9 months in the landscape, paclobutrazol still influenced plant height, width, and shoot dry weight for Pyracantha but had no effect on Juniperus. As rate of application increased, fruit retention on Pyracantha increased. Paclobutrazol applied as a container medium drench at 5 mg a.i./pot was excessive during nursery production of Pyracantha and Juniperus. Chemical name used: [(2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-yl)penten-3-ol] (paclobutrazol).
Thomas J. Brass, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes, and Charles H. Gilliam
Growth response of two red maple cultivars (Acer rubrum L. `October Glory' and `Northwood') to styrene lining or copper hydroxide coating of 23.3-liter black plastic containers was evaluated. After the first growing season, plants were left in their original container, repotted into 51.2-liter nontreated containers, or transplanted into the landscape. Copper hydroxide effectively reduced circling of roots of both cultivars at the medium–container interface during the first year of production, but was less effective during the second growing season. Repotting from copper-treated containers into 51.2-liter containers or transplanting into the landscape resulted in more fibrous root development and enhanced root regeneration outside the original rootball relative to transplanting from nontreated containers. However, when copper hydroxide was applied to styrene lining, root regeneration after transplanting was reduced. Roots of plants grown in styrene-lined containers covered the medium–container interface more thoroughly than those in nonlined containers, but height, trunk diameter, and root regeneration were similar. `October Glory' had a larger trunk diameter, more branching, and better root regeneration than `Northwood'.