Landscape design and installation is a fast-growing and profitable segment of the horticulture industry ( Landscape Management, 2003 ). As the landscape profession grows and becomes more sophisticated, the demand for employees who can integrate
Kerrie B. Badertscher
Colorado currently has no licensure program for landscaping and many people applying to the Colorado Master Gardener program have indicated a desire to seek entry-level training in order to determine if a second career in horticulture is feasible. Alternatively, some each year who complete this basic training go on into the Green Industry either in basic design and/or maintenance. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension came together with Associated Landscape Contractors of Colorado and the Colorado Nursery Association (now CNGA) to create the Rocky Mountain Landscape Design Guide. The purpose of this publication was to inform the general consumer about the landscape design process. A review will be given using this publication with concurrent laboratory activities to Master Gardeners as a continuing education piece.
W. Gary Smith
Native plant ecosystems, such as meadows and forests, demonstrate how plant communities are physically organized in response to a variety of natural factors and environmental processes. By visiting native ecosystems and diagramming the spatial patterns of naturally evolving plant communities, landscape design students quickly gain confidence about the variety of spaces they can create with plants. In addition, they develop an understanding that the physical organization of plants can have ecological meaning, deeper than simple utility, function, or decoration.
Caula A. Beyl
Computer-aided design (CAD) is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for landscape architects and designers. This has created the need for a simple-to-use, inexpensive, and readily available configuration for introducing computer-aided design on a limited budget to landscape students. This introduction to computer-aided landscape design can be accomplished easily and accurately using the 512K Macintosh computer and the software package MacDraw. Techniques are reported for shading, layering, and customizing plant and groundcover symbols, allowing a personal touch that is lacking in some more-advanced CAD packages. Computer-generated pages can be collaged to make full-sized landscape drawings, which are then copied onto reproduction vellum. In this manner, the design capability is not limited by the size of the minter. This design configuration is currently in use and was used to generate the design and the symbol illustrated.
Elizabeth A. Stevenson and Kevin L. Grueber
Berry College offers a unique environment for learning with 28,000 acres of forests, meadows, lakes, and streams. This distinctly beautiful setting has encouraged environmental awareness among students and faculty on campus. The construction of an academic building to house the School of Math and Natural Sciences in a previously undisturbed, wooded site prompted students and faculty to become interested in the preservation of the site's natural characteristics. Students in the horticulture program worked closely with the Director of Horticulture and the Academic Dean to develop a plan to create a landscape that was both educationally and environmentally sound.
The plan consisted of a detailed landscape design as well as the identification of the steps necessary to implement the design. The design incorporated ornamental plants and geological features native to the southeastern region of the United States with the plant species that existed on the site. The design contains such features as a wildflower meadow, an aquatic garden, rock gardens, and various native trees, shrubs, and groundcovers. Plant materials were properly labeled and brochures are made available to guests, students, and faculty interested in learning more about indigenous geological features and plant materials while touring the building and its landscape. The success of this project is due to the cooperation and participation of faculty, staff, and students and represents a unique learning opportunity.
Ann Marie VanDerZanden
The Landscape Design Theory class at Oregon State Univ. is composed of undergraduate students from a variety of majors including, horticulture, housing and interior design, business, criminal justice, and art. This diversity of majors means there is a wide range of student knowledge about the history of landscape design and creates a unique teaching opportunity. To capitalize on this diversity and to encourage student participation, concept or knowledge maps were used at the beginning of the term before the material being covered in class lectures. Students were divided into groups of three and asked to develop a group concept map. They were given major societies or events that occurred in history from about 2000 BC (ancient Egypt) through the early 20th century. Additionally each group was given a list of 20 landscape design elements or features. Initially each group developed a historical timeline. After the timeline was complete they linked the different landscape design elements or features with a historical era thereby creating a map of their understanding of landscape design history. After the landscape design history segment of the class was completed the small groups reconvened and evaluated their initial concept map in light of the recently completed lectures. Each group discussed their original map, what associations were correct, and how they would do it differently with their newfound understanding of landscape design history. A class discussion followed regarding initial perceptions and benefits of this learning activity. This teaching strategy could easily be adapted to a number of other horticulture topics.
John F. Vanderploeg
Computer assisted plant selection coupled with video disc technology allows students with limited experience in plant identification and selection to successfully complete landscape design plans.
The plant selector and video disc components have been integrated into a C.A.D. program producing a complete work station. Students preparing computer generated designs can refer to both the selector and video disc without leaving the C.A.D. environment. This integration has proven to be an effective teaching tool in landscape design instruction.
L. Brooke McDowell and Chris A. Martin
Effects of landscape design and land use history on gas exchange parameters were evaluated for woody plants in a factorial site matrix of formerly desert or agricultural land uses and xeric or mesic residential landscape designs within the metropolitan area of Phoenix, Ariz. Remnant Sonoran Desert sites and an alfalfa agricultural field functioned as controls. Residential landscapes and the alfalfa field were irrigated regularly. Monthly instantaneous measurements of maximum leaf and stem carbon assimilation (A), conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) were made within three replicates of each site type during 1998 and 1999. Measurements were repeated monthly on three woody plant life forms: trees, shrubs, and ground covers. Assimilation fluxes were not related to former land use, but were lower for plants in xeric compared with those in mesic landscapes. Transpiration fluxes were higher for plants in formerly agricultural sites than in formerly desert sites, and were lower in xeric than in mesic landscape design. Compared with plants in residential landscapes, A and E fluxes were generally higher for plants in the agricultural control sites and were lower for plants at the desert control sites. Plant instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ITE = A/E) was higher in formerly agricultural sites than in formerly desert sites but was not affected by landscape design. Patterns of A, gs, and shoot temperature at irrigated sites suggest that maximum plant carbon assimilation was not limited by shoot conductance but was more responsive to shoot temperature. Similarities in patterns of ITE between plants in the different landscape design types suggest that xeric and mesic landscape plants do not differ in terms of water use efficiency.
Dan T. Stearns and Shirley M. Gryczuk
Certain principles that appear in examples of successful design create the structure around which landscape design education is woven. Concepts of balance, contrast, rhythm, dominance, unity, and order must be understood before quality &sign is produced, but these concepts are often difficult to explain in a classroom situation. Commercially available vi&o imaging software has proven to be a valuable tool in increasing student understanding of design principles. After scanning an actual site photograph, students add, delete, or modify plant materials and other amenities to strengthen the design principles as they relate to the specific site. Benefits of this method over traditional lecture or studio techniques include the ability to investigate a variety of sites and an increased ability to observe the inter-dependency of design principles. As modifications are made to strengthen one principle, the others are also affected in either a positive or negative manner.
Bring together a university landscape horticulture professor who believes in school gardens, a landscape design class, a landscape construction class, enthusiastic elementary school teachers and a willing principal, and you can create wonderful teaching gardens. The interactions among university students, elementary teachers, and students were a true learning experience for everyone. University students were involved in a true problem-solving project, being forced to look at problems and solutions through the eyes of elementary school children. Their expertise was valued as they were asked to explain horticulture to first and second graders. For some, this was the first time they really understood some of the concepts. Teachers and students were active participants throughout the process. Sharing thoughts and ideas was dynamic throughout the design and construction. Ways to initiate and maintain university–school partnerships will be presented.