Ultraviolet (UV) illumination (254 nm) induced production of the phytoalexin scoparone in flavedo of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Lour. Swingle cv. Nagami) and orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cvs. Shamouti and Valencia]. Trace amounts of scoparone (<2.0 μg·g-1 fresh weight of flavedo) were detected in nontreated fruits. Phytoalexin accumulation in kumquat reached a peak of 530 μg·g-1 11 days after illumination, hut the amount declined rapidly, returning to a trace level 1 month after treatment.. Production of scoparone in illuminated fruits was enhanced by increasing the UV dose from 1.5 × 103 to 9.0 × 103 J·m-2 for orange and from 0.2 × 103 to 1.5 × 103 J·m-2 for kumquat and by raising the storage temperature from 2 to 17C. Phytoalexin accumulation correlated with an increase in antifungal activity of flavedo extracts. UV-illuminated kumquat fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum Sacc. 2 days after treatment had a lower incidence of decay than the control. Illumination of previously inoculated fruit failed to prevent decay. Kumquat fruit stored at 17C showed signs of UV-induced peel damage. Chemical name used: 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (scoparone).
Victor Rodov, Shimshon Ben-Yehoshua, Jong Jin Kim, Boris Shapiro and Yitzhak Ittah
Mark Rieger, Gerard Krewer, Pam Lewis, Mindy Linton and Tom McClendon
Sixteen cultivars of citrus (Citrus spp.) and close citrus relatives were planted in Savannah, Georgia to evaluate their potential as fruiting landscape trees in an area that routinely experiences minimum temperatures of 15 to 20 °F (-9.4 to -6.7 °C) during winter. Three to six trees of each cultivar were planted in 1998, and stem dieback and defoliation data were collected in 1999, 2001, and 2002. During the 4 years of the study, air temperatures fell below 32 °F (0.0 °C) 27 to 62 times per season, with absolute minima ranging from 13 to 18 °F (-10.6 to -7.8 °C), depending on year. In general, kumquats (Fortunella spp.), represented by `Meiwa', `Nagami', and `Longevity', were completely killed (or nearly so) in their first year in the field after air temperature minima of 13.5 °F (-10.28 °C). Others experiencing 100% dieback were `Meyer' lemon (Citrus limon × C. reticulata) and `Eustis' limequat (C. aurantifolia × Fortunella japonica), which were tested twice during the study. Kumquat hybrids, including procimequat [(C. aurantifolia × F. japonica) × F. hindsii), `Sinton' citrangequat [(C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) × unknown kumquat], `Mr John's Longevity' citrangequat [(C. sinensis × P. trifoliata) × F. obovat], razzlequat (Eremocitrus glauca × unknown kumquat), and `Nippon' orangequat (C. unshiu × F. crassifolia) survived freezing, but all experienced at least some defoliation and stem dieback. `Owari' satsuma (C. unshiu), `Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata), nansho daidai (C. taiwanica) and ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) experienced only minor stem dieback but substantial defoliation in most years, except that ichang papeda was substantially damaged in the last year of the study. Seven cultivars produced fruit at least once during their first 4 years: nansho daidai, ichang papeda, `Nippon' orangequat, `Mr John's Longevity' citrangequat, `Owari' satsuma, `Changsha' mandarin, and procimequat. Based on cold hardiness, fruiting, and growth characteristics, `Owari' satsuma, `Changsha' mandarin, `Mr John's Longevity' citrangequat, and `Nippon' orangequat provided the hardiest, most precocious and desirable fruiting landscape trees in this study.
Amalie B. Kurzer, Rose Bechtel and Jean-Xavier Guinard
interest in edible peels, such as are found on kumquats, however. Similar to the children, the adults did not care for the citrus peels either, but were less receptive to novel ideas such as more edible peels. Many of the adults felt that the peel offered
Yuan Yu, Chunxian Chen, Ming Huang, Qibin Yu, Dongliang Du, Matthew R. Mattia and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr.
accessions not in Citrus , kumquat displayed a low H o value of 0.05, and trifoliate orange exhibited a high PIC value of 0.27. Table 2. The number, polymorphism information content (PIC), observed heterozygosity ( H o ), expected heterozygosity ( H e
Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, Matthew L. Richardson, David G. Hall, Yongping Duan and Richard F. Lee
had more than mild symptoms ( Table 1 ). Again, this group of resistant progeny had no Citrus species. The kumquat hybrid C. halimii , two accessions of C. reticulata , C. nobilis , and C. sunki were the only Citrus species in the group that
C.H. Blazquez, H.N. Nigg, L.E. Hedley, L.E. Ramos and S.E. Simpson
Spectral reflectance measurements were taken from immature and mature leaves of `Rio Red' grapefruit `McCarty' grapefruit `Minneola' tangelo, `Satsuma' mandarin, `Dancy' tangerine, `Nagami' oval kumquat, and `Valencia' orange from 1330 to 1530 hr 1 day at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Fla. A PS-1000 spectrometer was used with fiber optic cables and a lens source (visible range of the spectrum 400-800 sun) coupled with a tungsten halogen light source. A data acquisition card was connected to a notebook computer with a SpectraScope computer program for processing and data storage. Immature and mature leaves of `Minneola' tangelo had greater percentage reflectance in the 500-800 sun range than the other cultivars and leaf ages measured. More detailed information was obtained with the PS-1000 than with conventional spectrometers. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a different spectrometer. The system used here was convenient to transport and use in the field and produced clear, interpretable data.
Greg McCollum, Kim Bowman and Tim Gottwald
Citrus bacterial canker [causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)] is a serious threat to the citrus industry. Currently, there are no effective means to control citrus canker. Our objective was to determine the resistance of selected citrus species, citrus hybrids, and citrus relatives to Xac. Our first experiment focused on determining if differences in resistance exist among 20 C. reticulata genotypes and included three other citrus species and citrus relatives (Glycosmis pentaphylla and Clausena hardimandiana). Plants were inoculated with Xac strain A either by injection infiltration or needle-prick. Our second experiment included 10 members of the genus Citrus and Poncirus trifoliata, representing a total of 31 different selections. Plants were needle-prick inoculated with both Xac strain A and Xac strain A Wellington (AW). All inoculations were done using suspensions of Xac at a concentration of 104 cfu/mL. In both experiments, there were highly significant differences among genotypes in response to inoculation with Xac. In the first experiment, regardless of inoculation method, G. pentaphylla and C. hardimandiana were found to be highly resistant to Xac, whereas C. paradisi was least resistant. In the second experiment for both Xac strain A and AW, Chinotto sour orange, Carrizo citrange, Eustis limequat, and P. trifoliata were the most resistant. Thornless key lime × Meiwa kumquat hybrids showed a range of resistance from among the most susceptible to among the most resistant. Our results expand on previous studies on resistance of citrus and citrus relatives to Xac and indicate that there may be potential for increasing resistance by breeding using selected parents.
Li Yingzhi, Cheng Yunjiang, Tao Nengguo and Deng Xiuxin
wild mandarins (Mangshan A1 and Daoxian 5), rangpur lime ( C. limonia Osbeck) and red lemon ( C. limonia ), shared a 6-bp insertion in the same site. Kumquat ( Fortunella sp.) biotypes, citron ( C. medica ) biotypes, australian round lime ( M
Monte L. Nesbitt, Robert C. Ebel and William A. Dozier Jr
citrus may be found in home landscapes in this region, but the only cultivars planted in sufficient numbers for commercial potential include ‘Meyer’ lemon, ‘Meiwa’ sweet kumquat ( Fortunella crassifolia ), and ‘Nagami’ sour kumquat ( Fortunella margarita