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V.H. Escalona, E. Aguayo and F. Artés

CICYT, Project ALI98-1006, for a research contract to E. Aguayo and for financial support. Thanks are also due to CEBAS-CSIC (Murcia) and to FRUVEG Soc. Coop. (Torre Pacheco, Murcia) for providing facilities and kohlrabi, respectively.

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Maria Victoria Cremona, Hartmut Stützel and Henning Kage

Two-year field experiments were carried out to evaluate the suitability of crop water stress index (CWSI) as a basis for irrigation scheduling of kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes) by comparison with irrigation scheduling based on total soil water content (SWC). In the first year, irrigation scheduling when CWSI exceeded 0.3 resulted in more frequent water applications, but the total amount of irrigation water given was lower compared to irrigation when SWC fell below 70%. Kohlrabi tuber fresh weight at harvest was similar in both scheduling treatments, leading to 25% higher irrigation water use efficiency in the CWSI-scheduled plots. In the second year, three threshold levels, i.e., 0.2 and 80%, 0.4 and 60%, and 0.6 and 40% of CWSI and SWC, respectively, were investigated. At the level of highest water supply (CWSI = 0.2 and SWC = 80%), the total amount of water supplied was less in the CWSI but the number of irrigations was higher than in the SWC plots. The CWSI-based approach may be a method for irrigation scheduling of vegetables under temperate conditions. The higher irrigation frequency required would make this method particularly suitable in combination with irrigation system that allow frequent applications, i.e., in drip irrigation. To improve the method, a coupling with a soil water balance model seems promising.

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K.D. Elsey and M.W. Farnham

The relative resistance of 18 cultivars of Brassica oleracea L. to attack by the sweetpotato whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] was studied in screen cage (spring), field (autumn), and laboratory tests. The B. oleracea entries consisted of six types, including 16 green and two red cultivars. Cabbage (Capitata Group) and broccoli (Boytrytis Group) were less infested than other crops in a screen cage test, with kale, collard (Acephala Group), and brussels sprouts (Germmiter Group) experiencing relatively high and kohlrabi (Gongtlodes Group) intermediate infestations. Relative ranking of crops was similar in an autumn field study, with the exception of brussels sprouts, which had an intermediate level of infestation. Differences in numbers of whiteflies among cultivars within crops were negligible or inconsistent, except that red cultivars of brussels sprouts (`Rubine') and cabbage (`Red Acre') were much less infested than green cultivars. In a laboratory test, differences of whitefly oviposition and nymphal survival and development were small, indicating that nonpreference factors, rather than antibiosis, are the best explanations for differences in the numbers of whiteflies among the B. oleracea cultivars that were tested,

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Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan

Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the unpleasant odor evolved when fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) is held under anaerobic conditions. Inductive atmospheres can develop in storage, transportation containers, or modified atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples were sealed in 500-mL glass jars and flushed with N2. After 24 h in the dark at 20 °C, headspace samples from the jars were analyzed for MT and other volatiles. Headspace concentration of MT was greatest in broccoli florets, followed by pak choi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis group) leaf blades, savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group), broccoflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group), and green and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group). Broccoli stems, kale (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group), pak choi petioles, rutabaga (Brassica napus L., Napobrassica group) root, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) florets, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L., Pekinensis group), and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L., Gongylodes group) tubers produced <3% of the MT produced by broccoli florets. Green tissues appeared to have a greater capacity to produce MT than nongreen tissues. Anaerobic production of CO2 and ethanol did not relate to the vegetable's ability to produce MT. The production of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were also induced by the anaerobic conditions. Green cabbage produced the greatest concentration of DMDS, followed by savoy cabbage and broccoli florets. Production of DMTS was similar to the pattern observed for MT, but DMDS production was not highly correlated with MT production.

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez and Dean A. Kopsell

and provide 100 mg·L −1 Ca to assist in uniform germination. For each species, nine tray systems were established by sowing seeds evenly onto each hydrated pad in the amounts of 25 g for purple kohlrabi, 15 g for mizuna, and 15 g for mustard (cv

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt and Roberto G. Lopez

reduced hypocotyl elongation of kohlrabi ( B. oleracea var. gongylodes ‘Delicacy Purple’), tatsoi ( B . rapa var. rosularis ), and mustard ( B . juncea L. ‘Red Lion’), and increased percent DW of red pak choi ( B . rapa var. chinensis ‘Rubi F 1

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Aaron Heinrich, Shinji Kawai and Jim Myers

evaluated included broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbage, napa cabbage, pak choi, kohlrabi, turnip, and rutabaga. For each crop, a clubroot susceptible cultivar was planted as a comparison. In 2015, five on-farm trials were initiated in fields

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Carmen Feller and Matthias Fink

To reduce nitrogen (N) losses from vegetable fields, fertilizer recommendations should be adjusted according to the large range in yield and thus in N uptake of vegetable crops. Therefore, a model was used to predict total N uptake based on expected yield. The model has been validated successfully in a series of studies for Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera), white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes). The objective of this study was to validate the model for table beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva), a crop with a considerable variability in N uptake, which is caused by a large potential range of selecting sowing dates, plant densities and cultivars. Field experiments were carried out over two years. Fifty-five combinations of N fertilizer levels, plant densities, cultivars and sowing dates were tested. Plants were sampled at 2- or 3-week intervals, and fresh matter, dry matter and N content of leaves and roots were measured. Crop specific model parameters for table beets were determined from independent data. The model wverestimated N uptake for N-limiting conditions, but for optimally fertilized table beets measured and estimated N uptake showed a close correlation (R 2 = 0.93) when total yield was used as an input parameter for the model. Although the error of estimation (35 kg·ha-1) was considerable, studies with other vegetable crops using the model found the error even higher if other tools, such as look-up tables, were used for predicting N uptake.

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Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan

Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the strong off-odor that is evolved when fresh broccoli is held under anaerobic atmospheres. Inductive atmospheres can develop in modified-atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples of these cut vegetables were sealed in 500-ml glass jars and flushed with N2. After flushing, jars were held for 24 h at 20C in the dark. Headspace samples from the jars then were analyzed for MT and other volatiles using a GC-MS> The concentration of MT was greatest in jars containing broccoli florets. Broccoli flower buds removed from florets produced 40 times more MT than peduncle and stem tissues (38.3 vs. 0.87 mmol·m–3). Headspace concentration of MT (mmol·m–3) in jars containing these different vegetables was: broccoli florets, 22.7; pak choi leaf blades, 17.8; savoy cabbage, 12.4; broccoflower, 7.5; green storage cabbage, 5.2; red cabbage, 2.7; kale, 0.81; Brussels sprouts, 0.36; pak choi petioles, 0.28; rutabaga root, 0.26; cauliflower florets, 0.18; Chinese cabbage, 0.03; and kohlrabi tubers, 0.02. In addition to MT, ethanol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide were detected in the headspace over each of the 12 vegetables. The contribution of these induced compounds to off-odor development in packaged, precut vegetables will be discussed.

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Anfu Hou, James R. McFerson and Warren F. Lamboy

Molecular DNA markers based on the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) assay are gaining use in germplasm assessment. RAPD markers are simple, relatively inexpensive, and highly informative. We used five primers to assess 26 Brassica oleracea breeding lines from the IVF and nine accessions from the PGRU. The test array included eight subspecies of B. oleracea. We generated 90 RAPD markers and were able to unambiguously discriminate among all 35 test entries, but could not separate subspecies within B. oleracea. Genetic similarity between subspecies ranged from 0.629 to 0.738. Average similarity within accessions was 0.96, confirming the suspected homogeneity of breeding lines. Nevertheless, significant genetic diversity was found among kohlrabi, broccoli, and cabbage accessions. Similarity analysis of breeding lines and hybrids confirmed their pedigree relationships. Interestingly, B. o. subsp. costata `Couve Nabica' showed closer similarity to B. napus subsp. oleifera `Jet Neuf' than to other B. o. materials and B. o. subsp. italica `Packman' showed higher similarity to some cabbages than to other broccolis. Results provide further evidence that diversity assessment using RAPDs is broadly applicable and useful in germplasm conservation and utilization.