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Michael W. Smith, Becky S. Cheary, and Becky L. Carroll

A persistent kernel quality problem was identified on pecan by a producer located in Charlie, TX. The tissue at the basal (stem) end of the kernel was necrotic and black in appearance ( Fig. 1 ). Frequent observations by the producer and

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Michele R. Warmund and J.W. Van Sambeek

embryo and cotyledons enlarge. Black walnut kernel development begins adjacent to the testa and continues inward until the exocarp is filled ( Van Sambeek and Rink, 1982 ). Several factors influence kernel filling, including previous and current year

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Reza Amiri, Kourosh Vahdati, Somayeh Mohsenipoor, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, and Charles Leslie

, 2000 ). Knowledge of the relationship between nut and kernel characteristics and other tree traits can guide appropriate selection schemes for walnut breeding programs. Hansche et al. (1972) examined heritability and phenotypic correlations for 18

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Michael W. Smith

Kernel necrosis is a malady characterized by necrotic tissue at the basal end (stem end) of the kernel ( Fig. 1 ) ( Smith et al., 2007 ). It was first reported in an orchard near Charlie, TX, and has since been identified in several orchards with

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Michele Renee Warmund

Eastern black walnuts ( Juglans nigra ) are prized for their unique kernel flavor when consumed fresh or in confectionary products. Approximately 90% of the crop is currently produced from native seedling trees and hulling of nuts is often delayed

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Scott A. Brawner and Michele R. Warmund

In the United States, an average of 11,340 t of hulled Eastern black walnuts ( Juglans nigra L.) is sold at buying stations annually ( Reid et al., 2004 ). The supply of black walnuts does not meet the current demand for kernels (B. Hammons, pers

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Michael W. Smith and William D. Goff

is a split along the shell suture. Cultivars with a tendency to have suture splits are those with thin shells and high kernel percentages, such as Schley (Eastern Schley), Wichita, Mohawk, and Oconee. Reduced crop value from split sutures can be

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Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, Fatma Akinci-Yildirim, Mehmet Polat, Bekir Şan, and Yılmaz Sesli

on almond seedling rootstocks were used in the study. Approximately 1 kg almond fruits were taken from different parts of the trees. The fruits were dried for 20 d at room temperature and cracked out by hand. Five hundred grams of almond kernel from

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Michael W. Smith and Becky S. Cheary

( Smith, 2010 ; Sparks, 1977 ), reduced kernel oil content ( Hunter and Hammar, 1956 ), poor kernel development ( Smith, 2010 ), greater fruit abortion ( Wood et al., 2010 ), lower tree yield ( Blackmon and Ruprecht, 1934 ; Smith et al., 1985 ), and

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Juan J. Polari, Louise Ferguson, and Selina C. Wang

aroma. Volatile terpenes are the key components for their aroma, being the major compounds in raw kernels limonene, α-pinene and β-myrcene ( Kendirci and Onoǧur, 2011 ; Rodríguez-Bencomo et al., 2015 ). In California, pistachios are the third most