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Catherine McGuinn and Paula Diane Relf

This study provides a profile of six juvenile offenders' responses to a vocational horticulture curriculum. The results indicate that vocational horticulture curricula may be a tool to strengthen a delinquent individual's bonds with society and, subsequently, evoke changes in attitudes about personal success and perceptions of personal job preparedness. The youths in this study increased their social bonds in all six categories addressed by the pretest and posttests, and were motivated to think more practically about their careers. Due to the limitations on size and scope of the study, it is exploratory in nature and provides ideas for future research and possible assessment methods for further research.

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Carol Cammack, Tina M. Waliczek and Jayne M. Zajicek

The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The objective of this study was to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the self-esteem, locus of control, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school of participating juvenile offenders. Participants in the Green Brigade program had significantly lower scores than the comparative group on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school prior to and after completion of the Green Brigade program. Although the Green Brigade participants' scores were significantly lower than the comparative group's scores, the means were still considered `normal' for their age group. However, adolescents participating in coed sessions, where the hands-on activities involved plant materials, displayed more positive interpersonal relationship scores than participants in an all male session where the hands-on activities focused on the installation of hardscape materials and a lack of plant materials. No significant differences were found in rates of repeated crimes of juvenile offenders participating in the Green Brigade program when compared to juvenile offenders participating in traditional probationary programming.

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Carol Cammack, Tina M. Waliczek and Jayne M. Zajicek

The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The program is used for vocational training and rehabilitation. The objectives of this study were to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the horticultural knowledge and the environmental attitudes of participating juvenile offenders. Participants of the Green Brigade program significantly improved their horticultural knowledge exam scores as a result of participating in the program. Participants also had significant improvements in their environmental attitude scores after completing the program. However, participants attending the Green Brigade program less than 60% of the time had significantly more negative environmental attitude scores than participants attending more frequently. Further analyses showed the program was equally effective at improving environmental attitude scores for all participants regardless of gender, ethnicity, age or grade in school.

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Catherine McGuinn and Diane Relf

A 17-week vocational horticulture curriculum was assessed for it's effectiveness in changing attitudes about personal success and job preparation, presenting horticulture/landscaping as an appropriate career, developing an attitude of appreciation and fostering of the environment, and strengthen social bonds to reduce delinquent behavior. Pre-tests/post-tests based on Hirsch's tests of social bond for juvenile delinquents were developed and administered to address attitudes toward school, teachers, peers, views, and the environment. A separate pre-post test dealt with career and aspirations. Results of these tests were compared to tests administered at a comparable urban program. Behavioral records for one semester before and semester during the horticulture curriculum were compared. Daily journals maintained by service learning students volunteers were analyzed for observational themes and combined with teachers observations. Success of the program was related to students desire and ability to get summer internships and/or employment in horticultural settings. Due to the limited size of the study group (6) and the school policies limiting follow-up data collection at 6 or 9 months, the results of the study must be seen as trends suggesting future research direction and supporting the continued work being conducted a Norfolk Botanic Gardens.

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Seong-Sil Kim, Sin-Ae Park and Ki-Cheol Son

development occurs when the child’s social environment expands from just their immediate family and neighbors to their school ( Choi, 2009 ). Children who have good relations with friends and teachers are less likely to become juvenile delinquents or social