The commercial and ornamental potential of three apple-berry polyculture systems was ascertained by monitoring the above-ground performance of component species in plots of `GoldRush' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees on M.7 rootstock cropped with either blackberry (Rubus spp. L. `Navaho'), edible honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. `Blue Belle' and `Blue Velvet'), or jostaberry (Ribes nidigrolaria Bauer `Josta') as understory plants. Polyculture plots and corresponding monoculture controls were established in 1999, with berry plants at recommended (R) or close [(C), half-recommended] spacings. Blackberries and jostaberries planted in monoculture at recommended spacings [i.e., control (R) plots] amassed dry weights >1 kg/plant by Fall 2001; the dry weight of edible honeysuckle from comparable plots was slightly >0.3 kg/plant. In 2001, blackberry yield (3.1 kg/plant) and fruit weight (3.4 g) were typical of `Navaho' plantings of similar age, whereas jostaberry was only moderately productive (yield = 286 g/plant; fruit weight = 1.4 g). Edible honeysuckle productivity (yield = 13 g/plant, fruit weight = 0.5 g) was minimal, due to disparate flowering phenology between cultivars. `GoldRush' apple growth and productivity (yield = 25 kg/tree; fruit weight = 158 g) was consistent with values expected for trees of similar age. Blackberry plant dry weights were reduced by 20% to 33% when planted at close spacing, whereas blackberry yields were reduced 35% to 38% when grown in polyculture with apple. Both polyculture and plant spacing significantly reduced jostaberry dry weights (i.e., 12% and 24%, respectively) relative to the control, but neither significantly affected jostaberry yield. Conversely, both close-spaced planting and the presence of an apple tree improved the yield of edible honeysuckle. Apple performance was not affected by the presence of an edible honeysuckle understory, but apple growth factors were reduced in blackberry and jostaberry polycultures by as much as 65%. Apple bloom, fruit set, and yield were also significantly reduced in apple-blackberry and apple-jostaberry plots, with fruit numbers/tree averaging <5 in all except the apple-blackberry (C) treatment. None of the polyculture treatments studied were suitable for profitable fruit production. However, each of the polyculture constituents exhibited unique, beneficial attributes with respect to their use as components within an edible landscape.
Tina M. Rivera, Martin F. Quigley, and Joseph C. Scheerens
Fruit from black, red and white currants, and gooseberries (Ribes L.) were grown commercially in North America at the beginning of the 20th Century. However, when white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.) was introduced into the new world, their cultivation was discontinued. About 825,000 t (908,000 tons) of Ribes fruit are produced worldwide, almost entirely in Europe. The fruit is high in vitamin C, and is used to produce juice, and many other products. Now a wide range of imported Ribes products is available particularly in Canada, and the pick-your-own (PYO) market is increasing. Two diseases, powdery mildew [Spaerotheca mors-uvae (Schwein.) Berk. & Curt.] and WPBR, are the major problems encountered by growers. Fortunately, many new cultivars are resistant to these two diseases. Commercial acreage of Ribes in North America is located where the growing day degrees above 5 °C (41 °F), and the annual chilling hours are at least 1200. Initially, the Ribes industry will develop as PYO and for farm markets. But for a large industry to develop, juice products will needed. Our costs of production figures indicate that about 850 Canadian dollars ($CDN) per 1.0 t (1.1 tons) of fruit will be required to break even.
Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith, and James J. Luby
place by state or local authorities to make sure only immune clones of Ribes are planted would be ineffective. Literature Cited Barney, D.L. Hummer, K.E. 2005 Currants, gooseberries, and jostaberries: A guide to
Kim E. Hummer
industry. Literature Cited Barney, D. Hummer, K. 2011 Highbush and half-high blueberry trials on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula HortScience. Abstr. 5572 Barney, D.L. Hummer, K.E. 2005 Currants, gooseberries, and jostaberries: A guide for growers, marketers, and
Moritz Knoche, Bishnu P. Khanal, and Matej Stopar
Aureobasidium pullulans Plant Dis. 81 337 342 Khanal, B.P. Grimm, E. Knoche, M. 2011 Fruit growth cuticle deposition, water uptake and fruit cracking in jostaberry, gooseberry and black currant Sci. Hort. 128 289 296 Knoche, M. Grimm, E. 2008 Surface moisture
Eric T. Wolske, Bruce E. Branham, and Kevin J. Wolz
between 50% and 80%. When experimenting with an apple-berry polyculture, Rivera et al. (2004) found that blackberry yield was reduced when grown in polyculture, jostaberry yield was unaffected, and the yield of one cultivar of edible honeysuckle was
Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, and Henrik Jürgen Schlegel
jostaberry, gooseberry and black currant Sci. Hort. 128 289 296 Knoche, M. Beyer, M. Peschel, S. Oparlakov, B. Bukovac, M.J. 2004 Changes in strain and deposition of cuticle in developing sweet cherry fruit Physiol. Plant. 120 667 677 Lang, A. 1983 Turgor