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Paul W. Bosland

The New Mexico State University chile pepper breeding program announces the release of ‘NuMex Jalmundo’, an open-pollinated, large-sized jalapeño. The name is a contraction of jalapeño and mundo (meaning “world” in Spanish), implying that it is

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Paul W. Bosland

One of the most popular and recognized chile peppers ( Capsicum annuum L.) grown and consumed in the United States and the world is the jalapeño pod type, which also represents one of the largest commercial pod types ( DeWitt and Bosland, 2009

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Paul W. Wilson, Gloria B. McClure and Julian C. Miller Hall

The demand for hot sauce products continues to expand in the U.S. In the case of jalapeno pepper sauce, there are many cultivars available for sauce production but those best suited for processing have not been adequately determined. Six cultivars (four replications) of jalapeno peppers (`Coyame', `Grande', `Jalapeno-M', `Mitla', `Tula' and `Veracruz') were evaluated for mash fermentation. The attributes studied during mash aging were color spectra, capsaicin content and fermentable sugars. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars in jalapeno peppers and these sugars were utilized gradually with time indicating slow fermentation by microorganisms in the 15% salt mash. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the predominant capsaicinoids in the jalapeno peppers with `Tula' containing the greatest concentration and `Veracruz' the least. All mashes displayed an apparent and unexpected rise in measurable capsaicinoids up to 6 months with a decline at 12 months. Color changes in the pepper mash were rapid initially but slowed after the first month of fermentation. Percent reflectance in fresh ground peppers was strongest in the range of 550–560 nm but, after salting, reflectance shifted to 580–590 nm and remained throughout the fermentation. Based on the characteristics tested, any of these cultivars would make a suitable mash for sauce. The heat content of the final product could be controlled by cultivar selection or through blending.

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Vincent M. Russo

in the postharvest production process to obtain varying degrees of pungency in the final product. Some nonpungent jalapeño pepper cultivars have been developed. These types of peppers are used to provide the jalapeño flavor with a known amount of

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Francisco Doñas-Uclés, Diego Pérez-Madrid, Celia Amate-Llobregat, Enrique M. Rodríguez-García and Francisco Camacho-Ferre

rest of treatments were ‘Palermo’ grafted onto open pollination cultivars (nonhybrid), SCM-334 and Jalapeño, used in this case as rootstocks. All the treatments were planted at a planting density of 2.3 plants/m 2 , the same as the densities used by the

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Benigno Villalón

JALORO is a multiple virus resistant (MVR) open pollinated pepper cultivar developed by Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at Weslaco. This pungent, cylindrical (fruit with blunt end) yellow jalapeño cultivar possesses high levels of resistance to several isolates of Texas tobacco etch virus, potato virus Y, pepper mottle virus, tobacco ringspot virus, cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. The genotype combines desirable characteristics of commercial hot yellow wax `Caloro'(TMR), the jalapeño genome from `Jalapeño-L' and Jalapeño 1158, and MVR genes from AC2207 (hot serrano) and PI 264280. `Jaloro' has the ability to set fruit at temperatures above 35C. It has a concentrated flower setting habit, sets fruits earlier and matures more uniformly than `Caloro'. The singlestem plant will support a heavy set of large thick yellow jalapeño fruit which can be mechanically harvested. It is suited for fresh market in salads or as a processed product, pickled whole, sliced as `nacho' rings or diced in picante sauces.

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Paul Wilson

Jalapeños are versatile peppers with both green and mature-red peppers used fresh and in processed products. Peppers can be dried, pickled whole in brine or as salted mash for sauces. Mature fruit can also be smoked and dried to produce chipotle which can be used in several ways including preparation of sauces. Although there are many individual cultivars of jalapeño peppers available, little is known of their processing characteristics. Most food processors still rely on fresh-market supplies rather than contracting specific cultivars which might provide better processing characteristics. A study was begun in Summer 2005 at LSU to provide information concerning the processing characteristics of commonly available jalapeño cultivars. Over a 3-year period, each cultivar will be evaluated in fresh form, as pickled whole fruit, as salted mash and as smoked chipotle. Besides good cultural production qualities, pepper cultivars that will be manufactured into processed products should have 1) acceptable and consistent heat content, 2) good stable color and, 3) consistent/suitable size (for whole pack). Seventeen jalapeño cultivars were evaluated in fresh green, brine-cured green and mature-red state for fruit surface color, average fruit weight, dry weight, and percent seed.

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Carl E. Motsenbocker, Blair Buckley, William A. Mulkey and James E. Boudreaux

Field studies were conducted in 1991 and 1992 to evaluate the effect of in-row spacing on machine-harvested jalapeno pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield and plant characteristics. In 1991, `TAM Mild Jalapeno-1' (TAMJ1) and `Jalapeno-M' (JM) were planted at 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-inch (10-, 20-, 30-, 40-cm) in-row spacings and, in 1992, TAMJ1 was planted at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-inch (7.5-, 15-, 22.5-, 30-cm) spacings. Total marketable yield increased linearly for JM (in 1991), while the yield response was quadratic for TAMJ1 in 1992 with narrower in-row spacing. Total marketable yield for JM (1991) and TAMJ1 (1992) was highest for the narrowest spacing, 4 and 3 inches, respectively. Red fruit yield of both cultivars in 1991 increased linearly with narrower spacing. In 1992 there were no differences in red fruit yield among in-row spacings. Plants lodged more at wider spacings. In-row spacings as narrow as 4 inches may increase marketable yield of machine-harvested jalapeno pepper.

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Charles L. Webber, Vincent M. Russo and James W. Shrefler

Non-pungent jalapeño peppers are used for making commercial picante sauces (salsas) and have a potential for outstanding yields in Oklahoma. There is incomplete information on the crop safety of certain herbicides that may not specifically address their use with non-pungent jalapeño peppers. The objective of this research was to determine the weed control efficacy and safety of a combination of preplant incorporated herbicides on transplanted non-pungent jalapeño pepper production. A field study was conducted during the Summer 2005 on 91-cm-wide raised beds at Lane, Okla. The herbicides in the study included napropramide (2.2 kg a.i./ha), clomazone (1.1 kg a.i./ha), bensulide (6.7 kg a.i./ha), and trifluralin (1.1 kg a.i./ha) used separately and in combination with one of the other herbicides. All herbicides were applied preplant-incorporated just prior to transplanting `Pace 105' non-pungent jalapeño peppers on 6 May 2005. Fruit were harvested on 21 July 2005, 76 days after transplanting. Plants treated with clomazone used by itself produced the greatest yields (16.4 t/ha) compared to plants treated with the other herbicides used individually, although it was not significantly greater than napropramide, 9.2 t/ha. Four of the five top-yielding herbicide treatments included the use of clomazone. The tank mixture of napropramide and bensulide produced the second greatest yield (16.2 t/ha). The weed-free treatment produced 17.5 t/ha compared to 86% yield reduction for the weedy check. These results demonstrated that clomazone, used individually or in combination with certain other herbicides, can maintain non-pungent jalapeño yields equivalent to weed-free levels.

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Anne K. Carter and Charles S. Vavrina

The germination of five commercial cultivars of jalapeño and cayenne pepper were tested to determine cultivar response of Capsicum annuum L. to supra-optimal temperatures. Two seedlots of `Cayenne, Large Red Thick', `Ole', `Jalapeño M', `Mitla', and `Tam Veracruz' were evaluated on a thermogradient table at temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C. Percent germination and time to 50% of final germination (T50) were calculated. All cultivars exhibited thermodormancy, but the degree of inhibition varied within temperature and cultivar. No cultivar had >1.0% germination at 40 °C. Generally, the T50 varied among cultivars, but not among temperatures within a cultivar (T50 at 40 °C was not measured). Cultivar selection should be considered when growing fall transplants in Florida.