Recent research indicated that the herbicide simazine dissipated quickly in gravel-based subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. This indicates that retention areas at nurseries may be developed to facilitate pesticide remediation and reduce offsite movement. A site to simulate runoff retention areas at a containerized nursery was established with troughs containing pea gravel and controls containing no gravel in an open field. Irrigation water was applied daily to replace half of the capacity of the trough, simulating daily irrigation and runoff at a nursery. A study was conducted to determine the effects of this system on isoxaben (a pre-emergent herbicide) concentrations in the water leaving the troughs and the change in microbial organisms associated with the gravel. Initially, 19 L of a dilute isoxaben solution (1.3 μg/L) was added to each tank. Drainage was collected and assayed for isoxaben concentration over a 40-day period. Isoxaben was detected in troughs containing gravel through 14 days while isoxaben was detected in troughs containing no gravel through only 4 days. Microbial analysis of the gravel showed a variety of microorganisms initially, but, by day 14, Pseudomonas spp. became the dominant genus present. Preliminary analysis revealed that the isoxaben binds to the gravel, and is then desorbed over time. Further investigations will include the abilites of Pseudomonas and other isolated organisms to metabolize isoxaben as the sole carbon-source in the laboratory.
Pennsylvania bittercress in containers, including flumioxazin, oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin, isoxaben + trifluralin, and dithiopyr, among others, providing more than 90% control in many instances ( Altland et al., 2000 ; Judge and Neal, 2006 ; Saha et al
Canna ×generalis L.H. Bail. (canna), Pontaderia cordata L. (pickerel weed), and Iris L. × `Charjoys Jan' (`Charjoys Jan' iris) were exposed to a 5 mg·L-1 suspension of isoxaben or oryzalin or a water control for 9 days. Growth and photosynthetic responses were monitored throughout treatment and for an additional 22 d after termination of treatment. By the end of the experiment plant height of pickerel weed was reduced by oryzalin. Isoxaben resulted in lower height and reduced leaf emergence for all three taxa by the end of the experiment. Leaf CO2 assimilation (A) and transpiration (E) were lower for oryzalin-treated canna only 17 and 18 days after treatment, several days after treatment had been terminated. Leaf A and E were lower for oryzalin-treated pickerel weed and `Charjoys Jan' iris for most days after day 17. Isoxaben reduced A and E of all three plants for all days measured except day 6 for `Charjoys Jan' iris. Lower photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) was found for isoxaben-treated canna from day 5 onward and days 7, 20, and 23 for pickerel weed and `Charjoys Jan' iris. Rapid reduction in A and Fv/Fm for all plants treated with isoxaben indicates a direct effect of isoxaben on photosynthesis. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic parameters due to oryzalin were minimal for all plants indicating these plants would be useful in phytoremediation systems where oryzalin is present. However, growth and photosynthetic parameters were reduced substantially for all plants exposed to isoxaben indicating the taxa studied would not perform well in phytoremediation systems with this level of isoxaben exposure. Chemical names used: isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyly]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide); oryzalin (4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulforamide).
Itea virginica L. `Sprich' (virginia sweetspire), Salix alba L. (white willow), and S. gracilistyla var. melanostachys (Mak.) Miq. (black pussywillow) were treated with a 4 mg·L-1 suspension of two herbicides, isoxaben and oryzalin, a water control (water) or a nonsaturated control (control) for 9 days. Growth and photosynthetic responses were monitored before, during and after the 9-day treatment for a total of 51 days. Growth index of white willow and virginia sweetspire was only reduced by isoxaben treatment while both herbicides reduced the growth index for black pussywillow compared to control. Plant dry weights of the willows were not affected by day 9. Final dry weight was lower for both herbicide treatments for all taxa. The water treatment resulted in lower total dry weight than control only for virginia sweetspire. Isoxaben reduced photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) and CO2 assimilation (A) following release from treatments of virginia sweetspire and black pussywillow. There were few differences in Fv/Fm and A for white willow. The response to oryzalin was similar to water for most parameters measured for virginia sweetspire and white willow. Growth was more strongly affected by oryzalin for black pussywillow than for other taxa but there were few differences in Fv/Fm or A between oryzalin and control for any of the taxa. Virginia sweetspire and white willow showed promise for use in phytoremediation of oryzalin but none of the taxa performed well under the levels of isoxaben used. Chemical names used: isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyly]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide); oryzalin (4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulforamide).
With increasing pressure to reduce disposal of yard waste in landfills, many homeowners are seeking alternative methods for grass clipping disposal. When turf is treated with pesticides, the collected grass clippings become a potential source of injury to susceptible plants that come in contact with the clippings. In this study, grass clippings were collected at 2, 7, and 14 days after pesticide treatment from a turf treated with chlorpyrifos, clopyralid, 2,4-D, flurprimidol, isoxaben, or triclopyr. The clippings were used as a mulch around Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (bush bean), Petunia ×hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr. (petunia), and Impatiens wallerana Hook. f. (impatiens). Beans were planted 4 weeks prior to mulching, whereas the other plants were grown in the greenhouse for 6 weeks and transplanted into the field 2 weeks prior to mulching. Clippings containing residues of clopyralid, 2,4-D, or triclopyr killed tomato, bean, and petunia plants when used 2 days after pesticide treatment (DAPT) and severely injured these same species when mulched 7 and 14 DAPT. Flurprimidol injured tomato, impatiens, and bean plants when present on mulch collected 2, 7, and 14 DAPT, but was not lethal. Flurprimidol slowed plant growth, caused darker green leaf color, and reduced flowering when mulched at 2 DAPT. Isoxaben injured tomato and bean plants when present on mulch used 2, 7, and 14 DAPT but was not lethal. Injury was not as severe in the second year of the study, indicating different environmental stresses and climatic conditions make predicting pesticide injury for all growing seasons difficult; however, grass clippings from a turf treated with herbicides or plant growth regulators should not be used for mulch around sensitive plants for at least 14 DAPT. Chemical names used: 0,0-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothioate (chlorpyrifos); 3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, triethylamine salt (clopyralid); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dimethylamine salt (2,4-D); α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluromethoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol); N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide and isomers (isoxaben); 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxy acetic acid, triethylamine salt (triclopyr).
Greenhouse studies were conducted at the Univ. of Florida to evaluate the effects of preemergence herbicides on St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] rooting. Metolachlor, atrazine, metolachlor + atrazine, isoxahen, pendimethalin, dithiopyr, and oxadiazon were applied to soil columns followed by placement of St. Augustinegrass sod on the treated soil. Root elongation and biomass were measured following application. Plants treated with dithiopyr and pendimethalin had no measurable root elongation and root biomass was severely (>70%) reduced at the study's conclusion (33 days). Root biomass was unaffected following isoxaben and oxadiazon treatments, but oxadiazon applied at 3.4 kg·ha-1 reduced root length by 50%. Atrazine at 2.2 kg·ha-1 and metolachlor + atrazine at 2.2 + 2.2 kg·ha-1, did not reduce root length in one study, while the remaining atrazine and metolachlor + atrazine treatments reduced cumulative root length and total root biomass 20% to 60%. Metolachlor at 2.2 kg·ha-1 reduced St. Augustinegrass root biomass by >70% in one of two studies. St. Augustinegrass root elongation rate was linear or quadratic in response to all treatments. However, the rate of root elongation was similar to the untreated control for plants treated with isoxaben or oxadiazon. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(l-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine(atrazine);S,S-dimethyl2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(t∼fluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinecarbothioate (dithiopyr); N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide (isoxaben); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl- 6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).
The tolerance of transplanted lanceleaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata L.), ox-eye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucantheum L.), purple cone flower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], and blanket flower (Gaillardia aristata Pursh) to metolachlor was determined in field trials. Metolachlor at 4.5 kg·ha-1 (maximum use rate) and 9.0 kg·ha-1 (twice the maximum use rate) did not reduce stand or flowering of any wildflower species after one or two applications, although plants developed transient visible injury. Combining metolachlor with the broadleaf herbicides simazine or isoxaben resulted in unacceptable injury and stand reduction, especially in ox-eye daisy. Metolachlor plus oxadiazon was less injurious to the wildflowers than metolachlor plus either simazine or isoxaben. Treatments containing metolachlor controlled yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) by at least 89% in both experiments. Treatments containing isoxaben controlled eclipta (Eclipta alba L.). 100% in both studies. Chemical names used: N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide (isoxaben); 2-chloro -N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl) -N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); 3-[2,4-di-chloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3 H) -one (oxadiazon); 6-chloro -N,N' -diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine).
Hardy ferns are widely grown for use in the landscape. The 1998 National Agricultural Statistics Services census of horticulture reported production of hardy/garden ferns at 3,107,000 containers from over 1200 nurseries. There is little research on herbicide use in hardy ferns, and herbicides that are labeled for container production are not labeled for use on hardy ferns. Studies were conducted to evaluate the tolerance of variegated east indian holly fern (Arachniodes simplicior `Variegata'), tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum), autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora), rochford's japanese holly fern (Cyrtomium falcatum `Rochfordianum'), and southern wood fern (Dryopteris ludoviciana), to applications of selected preemergence applied herbicides. Herbicides evaluated included selected granular or liquid applied preemergence herbicides. Spray-applied herbicides were pendimethalin at 3.0 or 6.0 lb/acre, prodiamine at 1.0 or 2.0 lb/acre, isoxaben at 1.0 or 2.0 lb/acre, and prodiamine + isoxaben at 1.0 + 1.0 lb/acre. Granular-applied herbicides were pendimethalin at 3.0 or 6.0 lb/acre, prodiamine at 1.0 or 2.0 lb/acre, oxadiazon + prodiamine at 1.0 + 0.2 or 2.0 + 0.4 lb/acre, oxyfluorfen + oryzalin at 2.0 + 1.0 or 4.0 + 2.0 lb/acre, trifluralin + isoxaben at 2.0 + 0.5 or 4.0 + 1.0 lb/acre, oxadiazon at 4.0 or 8.0 lb/acre, and oxadiazon + pendimethalin at 2.0 + 1.25 or 4.0 + 2.5 lb/acre. The greatest reduction in growth of autumn fern was observed with the high rates of oxadiazon, oxadiazon + pendimethalin, and oxadiazon + prodiamine. Reductions in rochford's japanese holly fern growth were most severe when plants were treated with the high rate of trifluralin + isoxaben resulting in a 66% and 72% decrease in frond length and frond number, respectively. There were also reductions in frond length and number of fronds when treated with the high rate of oxadiazon + pendimethalin. There were no reductions in frond numbers on tassel fern with any herbicides tested. However, there were reductions in frond length from four of the 10 herbicides evaluated. The most sensitive fern to herbicides evaluated in 2004 was variegated east indian holly fern with reductions in frond length and number of fronds with four of the 10 herbicides tested. Southern wood fern appeared to be quite tolerant of the herbicides tested with the exception of the high rate of oxadiazon. Granular prodiamine proved to be a safe herbicide for all species tested in both 2004 and 2005. In 2005 all plants from all treatments were considered marketable by the end of the study. The durations of both studies were over 120 days giving adequate time for any visual injury to be masked by new growth. However, there was significant visual injury observed on the rochford's japanese holly fern treated with isoxaben at 60 and 90 days after treatment, which might reduce their early marketability.
In an effort to identify new herbicides for vegetables crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), carrot (Daucus carota), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), bulb onion (Allium cepa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were evaluated in the field for tolerance to eight herbicides. The following herbicides and rates, expressed in a.i. lb/acre, were applied preemergence: carfentrazone, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2; flufenacet, 0.525; flumioxazin, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.25; halosulfuron, 0.032 and 0.047; isoxaben, 0.25 and 0.50; rimsulfuron, 0.016 and 0.031; SAN 582, 0.94 and 1.20 and sulfentrazone, 0.15 and 0.25 (1.000 lb/acre = 1.1208 kg·ha-1). Tolerance was evaluated by measuring crop stand, injury and biomass. Several leads for new vegetable herbicides were identified. Lettuce demonstrated tolerance to carfentrazone at 0.05 and 0.10 lb/acre. Cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of halosulfuron at 0.032 and 0.047 lb/acre. Broccoli, cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of SAN 582 at 0.94 lb/acre. Broccoli and carrot were tolerant of sulfentrazone at 0.15 lb/acre.
Preemergent herbicide phytotoxicity was evaluated for six species of container-grown ornamental grasses: beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), pampas grass [Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn.], tufted hair grass [Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauvois.], blue fescue [Festuca ovina cv. glauca (Lam.) W.D.J. Koch], fountain grass [Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.], and ribbon grass (Phalaris arundinacea cv. picta L.). Herbicides included isoxaben, metolachlor, MON 15151, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin; the granular combination products of benefin plus trifluralin; and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Metolachlor, granular or spray, and oryzalin severely injured all species tested, except beachgrass, which was not injured by metolachlor granule. Napropamide injured pampas grass, fountain, grass, blue fescue, and tufted hair grass, but was safe on ribbon grass and beach grass. Pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin; MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, and benefin plus trifluralin were safe on all six species. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine(benefin);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben);2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyll-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(MON 15151);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitro-benzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).